G-code

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This page tries to describe the flavour of G-codes that the RepRap firmwares use and how they work. The main target is additive fabrication using FFF/FDM processes. Codes for print head movements follow the NIST RS274NGC G-code standard, so RepRap firmwares are quite usable for CNC milling and similar applications, too.

There are a few different ways to prepare GCode for a printer. One is to use a slicer like Slic3r, Skeinforge or Cura. These programs take a CAD model, slice it into layers, and output the GCode required for each layer. Slicers are the easiest way to go from a 3D model to a printed part, but the user sacrifices some flexibility when using them. Another option for GCode generation is to use a lower level library like mecode. Libraries like mecode give you precise control over the tool path, and thus are useful if you have a complex print that is not suitable for naive slicing. The final option is to just write the GCode yourself. This may be the best choice if you just need to run a few test lines while calibrating your printer.

As many different firmwares exist and their developers tend to implement new features without discussing strategies or looking what others did before them, a lot of different sub-flavours for the 3D-Printer specific codes developed over the years.

Contents

Introduction

A typical piece of Gcode as sent to a RepRap machine might look like this:

N3 T0*57
N4 G92 E0*67
N5 G28*22
N6 G1 F1500.0*82
N7 G1 X2.0 Y2.0 F3000.0*85
N8 G1 X3.0 Y3.0*33

Gcode can also be stored in files on SD cards. A file containing RepRap Gcode usually has the extension .g, .gco or .gcode. Files for BFB/RapMan have the extension .bfb. Gcode stored in file or produced by a slicer might look like this:

G92 E0
G28
G1 F1500
G1 X2.0 Y2.0 F3000
G1 X3.0 Y3.0

The meaning of all those symbols and numbers (and more) is explained below.

To find out which specific Gcode(s) are implemented in any given firmware, there are little tables attached to the command descriptions, like this one:

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes automatic No Partial Experimental depreciated  ???  ???  ???  ??? No

Here means:

{{yes}}
The Gcode is fully supported by the firmware.
{{partial}} or {{experimental}}
There is some support for the Gcode. Often it is required to check out the source code branch for the firmware (usually stored in a different branch) or to flip configuration switches on the mainboard.
automatic
The firmware handles this Gcode automatically, so there's no need to send the command. An example is power supply on/off Gcode (M80/M81) in the Teacup firmware.
 ???
It is unknown if the firmware supports this Gcode. You may want to test this yourself before using it in production.
{{no}}
The firmware does not support this Gcode.
depreciated
The firmware depreciated this Gcode. The firmware author(s) should amend the depreciated Gcode on this page with workarounds (if needed) and the last supported firmware version that will accept this Gcode.

For the technically minded, Gcode line endings are Unix Line Endings (\n), but will accept Windows Line Endings (\r\n), so you should not need to worry about converting between the two, but it is best practice to use Unix Line Endings where possible.

Fields

A RepRap Gcode is a list of fields that are separated by white spaces or line breaks. A field can be interpreted as a command, parameter, or for any other special purpose. It consists of one letter directly followed by a number, or can be only a stand-alone letter (Flag). The letter gives information about the meaning of the field (see the list below in this section). Numbers can be integers (128) or fractional numbers (12.42), depending on context. For example, an X coordinate can take integers (X175) or fractionals (X17.62), but selecting extruder number 2.76 would make no sense. In this description, the numbers in the fields are represented by nnn as a placeholder.

Letter Meaning
Gnnn Standard GCode command, such as move to a point
Mnnn RepRap-defined command, such as turn on a cooling fan
Tnnn Select tool nnn. In RepRap, tools are extruders
Snnn Command parameter, such as time in seconds; temperatures; voltage to send to a motor
Pnnn Command parameter, such as time in milliseconds; proportional (Kp) in PID Tuning
Xnnn A X coordinate, usually to move to. This can be an Integer or Fractional number.
Ynnn A Y coordinate, usually to move to. This can be an Integer or Fractional number.
Znnn A Z coordinate, usually to move to. This can be an Integer or Fractional number.
Innn Parameter - X-offset in arc move; integral (Ki) in PID Tuning
Jnnn Parameter - Y-offset in arc move
Dnnn Parameter - used for diameter; derivative (Kd) in PID Tuning
Hnnn Parameter - used for heater number in PID Tuning
Fnnn Feedrate in mm per minute. (Speed of print head movement)
Rnnn Parameter - used for temperatures
Qnnn Parameter - not currently used
Ennn Length of extrudate. This is exactly like X, Y and Z, but for the length of filament to extrude. It is common for newer stepper based systems to interpret ... Better: Skeinforge 40 and up interprets this as the absolute length of input filament to consume, rather than the length of the extruded output.
Nnnn Line number. Used to request repeat transmission in the case of communications errors.
*nnn Checksum. Used to check for communications errors.

Comments

Gcode comments begin at a semicolon, and end at the end of the line:

N3 T0*57 ; This is a comment
N4 G92 E0*67
; So is this
N5 G28*22

Comments and white space will be ignored by your RepRap Printer. It's better to strip these out on the host computer before sending the Gcode to your printer, as this saves bandwidth.

Special fields

N: Line number

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ???  ???  ??? Yes  ???  ?

Example: N123

If present, the line number should be the first field in a line. For G-code stored in files on SD cards the line number is usually omitted.

If checking is supported, the RepRap firmware expects line numbers to increase by 1 each line, and if that doesn't happen it is flagged as an error. But you can reset the count using M110 (see below).

Although supported, usage of N in Machinekit is discouraged as it serves no purpose.

*: Checksum

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ?

Example: *71

If present, the checksum should be the last field in a line, but before a comment. For G-code stored in files on SD cards the checksum is usually omitted.

If checking is supported, the RepRap firmware checks the checksum against a locally-computed value and, if they differ, requests a repeat transmission of the line of the given number.

Checking

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ?

Example: N123 [...G Code in here...] *71

The RepRap firmware checks the line number and the checksum. You can leave both of these out - RepRap will still work, but it won't do checking. You have to have both or neither though. If only one appears, it produces an error.

The checksum "cs" for a GCode string "cmd" (including its line number) is computed by exor-ing the bytes in the string up to and not including the * character as follows:

int cs = 0;
for(i = 0; cmd[i] != '*' && cmd[i] != NULL; i++)
   cs = cs ^ cmd[i];
cs &= 0xff;  // Defensive programming...

and the value is appended as a decimal integer to the command after the * character.

Buffering

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? No

If buffering is supported, the RepRap firmware stores some commands in a ring buffer internally for execution. This means that there is no (appreciable) delay while a command is acknowledged and the next transmitted. In turn, this means that sequences of line segments can be plotted without a dwell between one and the next. As soon as one of these buffered commands is received it is acknowledged and stored locally. If the local buffer is full, then the acknowledgment is delayed until space for storage in the buffer is available. This is how flow control is achieved.

Typically, the following moving commands are buffered: G0-G3 and G28-G32. The Teacup Firmware buffers also some setting commands: G20, G21, G90 and G91. All other G, M or T commands are not buffered.

When an unbuffered command is received it is stored, but it is not acknowledged to the host until the buffer is exhausted and then the command has been executed. Thus the host will pause at one of these commands until it has been done. Short pauses between these commands and any that might follow them do not affect the performance of the machine.

G-commands

G0 & G1: Move

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  • G0 : Rapid linear Move
  • G1 : Linear Move
Usage
G0 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn
G1 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn
Parameters
Not all parameters need to be used, but at least one has to be used
Xnnn The position to move to on the X axis
Ynnn The position to move to on the Y axis
Znnn The position to move to on the Z axis
Ennn The amount to extrude between the starting point and ending point
Fnnn The feedrate per minute of the move between the starting point and ending point (if supplied)
Snnn Flag to check if an endstop was hit (S1 to check, S0 to ignore, S2 see note, default is S0)1
Examples
G0 X12 (move to 12mm on the X axis)
G0 F1500 (Set the feedrate to 1500mm/minute)
G1 X90.6 Y13.8 E22.4 (Move to 90.6mm on the X axis and 13.8mm on the Y axis while extruding 22.4mm of material)

The RepRap firmware spec treats G0 and G1 as the same command, since it's just as efficient as not doing so.2

Most RepRap firmwares do subtle things with feedrates.

1. G1 F1500
2. G1 X50 Y25.3 E22.4

In the above example, we set the feedrate to 1500mm/minute on line 1, then move to 50mm on the X axis and 25.3mm on the Y axis while extruding 22.4mm of filament between the two points.

1. G1 F1500
2. G1 X50 Y25.3 E22.4 F3000

However, in the above example, we set a feedrate of 1500 mm/minute on line 1, then do the move described above accelerating to a feedrate of 3000 mm/minute as it does so. The extrusion will accelerate along with the X and Y movement, so everything stays synchronized.

The RepRap spec treats the feedrate as simply another variable (like X, Y, Z, and E) to be linearly interpolated. This gives complete control over the acceleration and deceleration of the printer head in such a way that ensures that everything moves smoothly together, and the right volume of material is extruded at all points.3

To reverse the extruder by a given amount (for example to reduce its internal pressure while it does an in-air movement so that it doesn't dribble) simply use G0 or G1 to send an E value that is less than the currently extruded length.

Notes

1Some firmwares allow for the RepRap to enable or disable the "sensing" of endstops during a move. Please check with whatever firmware you are using to see if they support the S parameter in this way, as damage may occur if you assume incorrectly. In the dc42 fork of RepRapFirmware, using the S1 or S2 parameter on a delta printer causes the XYZ parameters to refer to the individual tower motor positions instead of the head position, and to enable endstop detection as well if the parameter is S1.

2In the RS274NGC Spec, G0 is Rapid Move, which was used to move between the current point in space and the new point as quickly and efficiently as possible, and G1 is Controlled Move, which was used to move between the current point in space and the new point as precise as possible.

3Some firmwares may not support setting the feedrate inline with a move.

4zpl and dc42 forks of RepRapFirmware implement an additional 'R1' parameter to tell the machine to go back to the coordinates a print was originally paused at.

Some older machines, CNC or otherwise, used to move faster if they did not move in a straight line. This is also true for some non-Cartesian printers, like delta or polar printers, which move easier and faster in a curve.

G2 & G3: Controlled Arc Move

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No Yes Yes1 Yes Yes No No Yes  ??? Yes
Usage
G2 Xnnn Ynnn Innn Jnnn Ennn Fnnn (Clockwise Arc)
G3 Xnnn Ynnn Innn Jnnn Ennn Fnnn (Counter-Clockwise Arc)
Parameters
Xnnn The position to move to on the X axis
Ynnn The position to move to on the Y axis
Innn The point in X space from the current X position to maintain a constant distance from
Jnnn The point in Y space from the current Y position to maintain a constant distance from
Ennn The amount to extrude between the starting point and ending point
Fnnn The feedrate per minute of the move between the starting point and ending point (if supplied)
Examples
G2 X90.6 Y13.8 I5 J10 E22.4 (Move in a Clockwise arc from the current point to point (X=90.6,Y=13.8), with a center point at (X=current_X+5, Y=current_Y+10), extruding 22.4mm of material between starting and stopping)
G3 X90.6 Y13.8 I5 J10 E22.4 (Move in a Counter-Clockwise arc from the current point to point (X=90.6,Y=13.8), with a center point at (X=current_X+5, Y=current_Y+10), extruding 22.4mm of material between starting and stopping)
Notes

1In Marlin Firmware not implemented for DELTA and SCARA printers.

G4: Dwell

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Parameters
Pnnn Time to wait, in milliseconds
Snnn Time to wait, in seconds (Only on Marlin and Smoothie)
Example
G4 P200

In this case sit still doing nothing for 200 milliseconds. During delays the state of the machine (for example the temperatures of its extruders) will still be preserved and controlled.

On Marlin and Smoothie, the "S" parameter will wait for seconds, while the "P" parameter will wait for milliseconds. "G4 S2" and "G4 P2000" are equivalent.

G10: Tool Offset

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No No No No No Yes No Yes  ??? No

Example: G10 P3 X17.8 Y-19.3 Z0.0 R140 S205

This sets the offset for tool (or in older implementations extrude head) 3 (from the P3) to the X and Y values specified. You can put a non-zero Z value in as well, but this is usually a bad idea unless the tools are loaded and unloaded by some sort of tool changer. When all the tools are in the machine at once they should all be set to the same Z height.

Remember that any parameter that you don't specify will automatically be set to the last value for that parameter. That usually means that you want explicitly to set Z0.0.

The R value is the standby temperature in oC that will be used for the tool, and the S value is its operating temperature. If you don't want the tool to be at a different temperature when not in use, set both values the same. See the T code (select tool) below. In tools with multiple heaters the temperatures for them all are specified thus: R100.0:90.0:20.0 S185.0:200.0:150.0 .

The NIST G-code standard mentions an additional L parameter, which is ignored.

This command is subject to discussion.

Note that Marlin and Smoothie use G10/G11 for executing a retraction/unretraction move. The RepRapPro version of Marlin supports G10 for tool offset.

Duet-zpl allows tool heaters to be switched off if the absolute negative temperature (-273.15) is passed as active and standby temperature. In this case the current active and standby temperatures are not affected.

G10 P1 R-273.15 S-273.15

G10: Retract

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No No Yes Yes: 0.92 Yes No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn retract length (S1 = long retract, S0 = short retract = default) (Repetier only)
Example
G10

Retracts filament according to settings of M207 (Marlin) or accoridng to the S value (Repetier).

G11: Unretract

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No No Yes Yes: 0.92 Yes No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn retract length (S1 = long retract, S0 = short retract = default) (Repetier only)
Example
G11

Unretracts/recovers filament according to settings of M208 (Marlin) or accoridng to the S value (Repetier).

G17..19: Plane Selection (CNC specific)

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes  ??? Yes

These codes set the current plane as follows:

  • G17 : XY (default)
  • G18 : ZX
  • G19 : YZ

G20: Set Units to Inches

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ??? Yes

Example: G20

Units from now on are in inches.

G21: Set Units to Millimeters

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? Yes

Example: G21

Units from now on are in millimeters. (This is the RepRap default.)

G22 & G23: Firmware controlled Retract/Precharge

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No No No No No  ??? No Yes  ??? No
Usage
G22 ; Retract
G23 ; Unretract/Precharge

Relying on machine's firmware to execute extrusion retract/precharge move, instead of having slicer generating to E axis G1 movement. The retract/precharge length, velocity is handled by the machine firmware.

G28: Move to Origin (Home)

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Parameters
This command can be used without any additional parameters.
X Flag to go back to the X axis origin
Y Flag to go back to the Y axis origin
Z Flag to go back to the Z axis origin
Examples
G28 (Go to origin on all axes)
G28 X Z (Go to origin only on the X and Z axis)

When the RepRap firmware receives this command, it moves all (or the supplied) axis's back to the zero endstops as quickly as it can, then backs off by a millimeter and slowly moves back to the zero endstop activation points to increase position accuracy. This process is also known as "Homing".

If you add coordinates, these coordinates are ignored. For example, G28 Z0.00 results in the same behaviour as G28 Z.

When Duet-dc42 firmware is used to control a delta printer, any G28 command will home all three towers, regardless of any XYZ letters.

G29: Detailed Z-Probe

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes  ??? No

Example: G29

Probes the bed at 3 or more points. The printer must be homed with G28 before G29.

G29.1: Set Z probe head offset

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No No No No No No No No Yes  ??? No

Example: G29.1 X30 Y20 Z0.5

Set the offset of the Z probe head. The offset will be subtracted from all probe moves.

G29.2: Set Z probe head offset calculated from toolhead position

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No No No No No No No No Yes  ??? No

Example: G29.2 Z0.0

Set the offset of the Z probe head. The offset will be subtracted from all probe moves. The calculated value is derived from the distance of the toolhead from the current axis zero point.

The user would typically place the toolhead at the zero point of the axis and issue the G29.2 command.

G30: Single Z-Probe

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No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ??? No

In its simplest form probes bed at current XY location.

Some implementations allow more general behaviour: if a Pn field is specified the probed X, Y, and Z values are saved as point n on the bed for calculating the offset plane. Generally n is 0, 1, or 2. If X, or Y, or Z values are specified (e.g. G30 P1 X20 Y50 Z0.3) then those values are used instead of the machine's current coordinates. A silly Z value (less than -9999.0) causes the machine to probe at the current point to get Z, rather than using the given value. If an S field is specified (e.g. G30 P1 Z0.3 S) the bed plane is computed for compensation and stored. The combination of these options allows for the machine to be moved to points using G1 commands, and then probe the bed, or for the user to position the nozzle interactively and use those coordinates. The user can also record those values and place them in a setup GCode file for automatic execution.

The dc42 variant of RepRapFirmware uses the value of the S parameter to specify what computation to perform. If the value is -1 then the Z offsets of all the points probed are printed, but no calibration is done. If the value is zero or not present, then this specified that the number of factors to be calibrated is the same as the number of points probed. Otherwise, the value indicates the number of factors to be calibrated, which must be no greater than the number of points probed. Currently (as of version 1.04d), the number of factors may be 3, 4 or 5 when doing auto bed compensation on a Cartesian or CoreXY printer, and 3, 4, 6 or 7 when doing auto calibration of a Delta printer.

G31: Report Current Probe status

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No No No No  ??? Yes Yes No No  ??? No

When used on its own this reports whether the Z probe is triggered, or gives the Z probe value in some units if the probe generates height values. If combined with a Z and P field (example: G31 P312 Z0.7) this will set the Z height to 0.7mm when the Z-probe value reaches 312 when a G28 Z0 (zero Z axis) command is sent. The machine will then move a further -0.7mm in Z to place itself at Z = 0. This allows non-contact measuring probes to approach but not touch the bed, and for the gap left to be allowed for. If the probe is a touch probe and generates a simple 0/1 off/on signal, then G31 Z0.7 will tell the RepRap machine that it is at a height of 0.7mm when the probe is triggered.

In Duet-dc42 firmware, separate G31 parameters may be defined for probe types 0, 1/2, and 3 (probe types 1 and 2 share the same set of parameters). To specify which probe you are setting parameters for, send a M558 command to select the probe type before sending the G31 command.

Duet-dc42 firmware supports additional parameters S (bed temperature in degC at which the specified Z parameter is correct, default is current bed temperature) and C (temperature coefficient of Z parameter in mm/degC, default zero). This is useful for ultrasonic and other probes that are affected by temperature.

Duet-dc42 firmware versions 1.00b onwards also allow the X and Y offsets of the Z probe relative to the print head (i.e. the position when the empty tool is selected) to be specified, by adding parameters X and Y. This allows you to calculate your M557 probe coordinates based on the geometry of the bed, without having to correct them for Z probe X and Y offset. It also provides more accurate bed compensation.

G32: Probe Z and calculate Z plane

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No No No No: See G29  ??? Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Probes the bed at 3 or more pre-defined points (see M557) and updates transformation matrix for bed leveling compensation. Later versions of RepRapFirmware execute macro file bed.g if present instead of using the M557 coordinates.

G31: Dock Z Probe sled

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No No No Yes  ??? No No No No  ??? No

G32: Undock Z Probe sled

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No No No Yes  ??? No No No No  ??? No

G38.x Straight Probe (CNC specific)

G38.2 probe toward workpiece, stop on contact, signal error if failure
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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes
G38.3 probe toward workpiece, stop on contact
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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes
G38.4 probe away from workpiece, stop on loss of contact, signal error if failure
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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes
G38.5 probe away from workpiece, stop on loss of contact
Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes

G40: Compensation Off (CNC specific)

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes  ??? Yes

G40 turn cutter compensation off. If tool compensation was on the next move must be a linear move and longer than the tool diameter. It is OK to turn compensation off when it is already off.

G54..59: Coordinate System Select (CNC specific)

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes  ??? Yes

See linuxcnc.org for more help

G80: Cancel Canned Cycle (CNC specific)

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes

It cancel canned cycle modal motion. G80 is part of modal group 1, so programming any other G code from modal group 1 will also cancel the canned cycle.

G90: Set to Absolute Positioning

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? Yes

Example: G90

All coordinates from now on are absolute relative to the origin of the machine. (This is the RepRap default.)

G91: Set to Relative Positioning

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ??? Yes

Example: G91

All coordinates from now on are relative to the last position.

G91.x: Reset Coordinate System Offsets (CNC specific)
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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes
  • G91.1 - reset axis offsets to zero and set parameters 5211 - 5219 to zero. (X Y Z A B C U V W)
  • G91.2 - reset axis offsets to zero.

G92: Set Position

Support FiveD Teacup Sprinter Marlin Repetier Smoothie RepRapFirmware BFB/RapMan Machinekit MakerBot grbl
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Parameters
This command can be used without any additional parameters.
Xnnn new X axis position
Ynnn new Y axis position
Znnn new Z axis position
Ennn new extruder position
Example
G92 X10 E90

Allows programming of absolute zero point, by reseting the current position to the values specified. This would set the machine's X coordinate to 10, and the extrude coordinate to 90. No physical motion will occur.

A G92 without coordinates will reset all axes to zero.

G93: Feed Rate Mode (Inverse Time Mode) (CNC specific)

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes

G93 is Inverse Time Mode. In inverse time feed rate mode, an F word means the move should be completed in (one divided by the F number) minutes. For example, if the F number is 2.0, the move should be completed in half a minute.

When the inverse time feed rate mode is active, an F word must appear on every line which has a G1, G2, or G3 motion, and an F word on a line that does not have G1, G2, or G3 is ignored. Being in inverse time feed rate mode does not affect G0 (rapid move) motions.

G94: Feed Rate Mode (Units per Minute) (CNC specific)

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? Yes

G94 is Units per Minute Mode. In units per minute feed mode, an F word is interpreted to mean the controlled point should move at a certain number of inches per minute, millimeters per minute, or degrees per minute, depending upon what length units are being used and which axis or axes are moving.

G100: Calibrate floor or rod radius

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No No No No Yes: 0.92 No No No No  ??? No
Parameters
X Flag to set floor for X axis
Y Flag to set floor for Y axis
Z Flag to set floor for Z axis
Rnnn Radius to add
Examles
G100 X Y Z (set floor for argument passed in. Number ignored and may be absent.)
G100 R5 (Add 5 to radius. Adjust to be above floor if necessary)
G100 R0 (Set radius based on current z measurement. Moves all axes to zero)

G130: Set digital potentiometer value

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No No No No No No  ??? No No Yes No

Example: G130 X10 Y18 Z15 A20 B12

Set the digital potentiometer value for the given axes. This is used to configure the current applied to each stepper axis. The value is specified as a value from 0-127; the mapping from current to potentimeter value is machine specific.

G131: Remove offset

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No No No No Yes: 0.91 No No No No  ??? No

G132: Calibrate endstop offsets

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No No No No Yes: 0.91 No No No No  ??? No

G133: Measure steps to top

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No No No No Yes: 0.91 No No No No  ??? No

G161: Home axes to minimum

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No Yes No No No No  ??? No No Yes No
Parameters
X Flag to home the X axis to its minimum position
Y Flag to home the Y axis to its minimum position
Z Flag to home the Z axis to its minimum position
Fnnn Desired feedrate for this command
Example
G161 X Y Z F1800

Instruct the machine to home the specified axes to their minimum position. Similar to G28, which decides on its own in which direction to search endstops.

G162: Home axes to maximum

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No Yes No No No No  ??? No No Yes No
Parameters
X Flag to home the X axis to its maximum position
Y Flag to home the Y axis to its maximum position
Z Flag to home the Z axis to its maximum position
Fnnn Desired feedrate for this command
Example
G162 X Y Z F1800

Instruct the machine to home the specified axes to their maximum position.

M-commands

M0: Stop or Unconditional stop

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Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes  ??? Yes
Parameters
This command can be used without any additional parameters.
Pnnn Time to wait, in milliseconds
Snnn Time to wait, in seconds (Only on Marlin)
Example
M0

The RepRap machine finishes any moves left in its buffer, then shuts down. All motors and heaters are turned off. It can be started again by pressing the reset button on the master microcontroller. See also M1, M112.

The Marlin Firmware does wait for user to press a button on the LCD, or a specific time. "M0 P2000" waits 2000 milliseconds "M0 S2" waits 2 seconds

M1: Sleep or Conditional stop

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No  ??? No Yes No No Yes No No  ??? Yes
Example
M1

The RepRap machine finishes any moves left in its buffer, then shuts down. All motors and heaters are turned off. It can still be sent G and M codes, the first of which will wake it up again. See also M0, M112.

The Marlin Firmware does the same as M0.

M2: Program End

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No Yes No No No  ???  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M2

Teacup firmware does the same as M84.

M3: Spindle On, Clockwise (CNC specific)

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No Yes No No No Yes No No No  ??? Yes

Example: M3 S4000

The spindle is turned on with a speed of 4000 RPM.

Teacup firmware turn extruder on (same as M101).

M4: Spindle On, Counter-Clockwise (CNC specific)

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M4 S4000

The spindle is turned on with a speed of 4000 RPM.

M5: Spindle Off (CNC specific)

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No Yes No No No Yes  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M5

The spindle is turned off.

Teacup firmware turn extruder off (same as M103).

M6: Tool change

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No Yes No No No  ???  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M6

M7: Mist Coolant On (CNC specific)

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No Yes No No No No  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M7

Mist coolant is turned on (if available)

Teacup firmware turn on the fan, and set fan speed (same as M106).

M8: Flood Coolant On (CNC specific)

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M8

Flood coolant is turned on (if available)

M9: Coolant Off (CNC specific)

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M9

All coolant systems are turned off.

M10: Vacuum On (CNC specific)

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M10

Dust collection vacuum system turned on.

M11: Vacuum Off (CNC specific)

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M11

Dust collection vacuum system turned off.

M17: Enable/Power all stepper motors

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No (automatic) No Yes No Yes  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M17

M18: Disable all stepper motors

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No use M2 No call M84 No Yes Yes No No Yes No

Example: M18

Disables stepper motors and allows axis to move 'freely.'

RepRapFirmware allows stepper motors to be disabled selectively. For example, M18 X E0:2 will disable the X, extruder 0 and extruder 2 motors.

M20: List SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M20

All files in the root folder of the SD card are listed to the serial port. One name per line, like:

ok
SQUARE.G
SQCOM.G
ZCARRI~1.GCO
ZCARRI~2.GCO
ZADJUS~1.GCO
CARRIA~1.GCO

Note that some firmwares list file names in upper case, but - when sent to the M23 command (below) they must be in lower case. Teacup has no such trouble and accepts both.

Duet-dc42 firmware returns the (long) filenames in the correct case. If the S2 parameter is present, the file list is returned in JSON format as a single array called "files", and the directory is returned in variable "dir". The optional P parameter specifies the directory to list, defaulting to the /gcodes directory in RepRapFirmware - for other firmware, this is whatever directory printable gcode files are normally stored in.

M21: Initialize SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No  ??? No

Example: M21

The SD card is initialized. If an SD card is loaded when the machine is switched on, this will happen by default. SD card must be initialized for the other SD functions to work.

M22: Release SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No  ??? No

Example: M22

SD card is released and can be physically removed.

M23: Select SD file

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M23 filename.gco

The file specified as filename.gco (8.3 naming convention is supported) is selected ready for printing.

Duet-dc42 firmware supports long filenames as well as 8.3 format.

M24: Start/resume SD print

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M24

The machine prints from the file selected with the M23 command.

When this command is used to resume a print that was paused, the dc42 and zpl forks of RepRapFirmware run macro file resume.g if it exists prior to resuming the print.

M25: Pause SD print

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M25

The machine pause printing at the current position within the file selected with the M23 command.

Prior to pausing, the dc42 and zpl forks of RepRapFirmware run macro file pause.g if it exists. This allows the head to be moved away from the print, filament to be retracted, etc.

M26: Set SD position

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No No Yes Yes Yes aborts  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M26

Set SD position in bytes (M26 S12345).

M27: Report SD print status

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M27

Report SD print status.

M28: Begin write to SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M28 filename.gco

File specified by filename.gco is created (or overwritten if it exists) on the SD card and all subsequent commands sent to the machine are written to that file.

M29: Stop writing to SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M29 filename.gco

File opened by M28 command is closed, and all subsequent commands sent to the machine are executed as normal.

M30: Delete a file on the SD card

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No No  ??? Yes

Example: M30 filename.gco
filename.gco is deleted.

M30 in grbl

M30 exchange pallet shuttles and end the program. Pressing cycle start will start the program at the beginning of the file.

M31: Output time since last M109 or SD card start to serial

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M31

The response looks like:

 echo:54 min, 38 sec

M32: Select file and start SD print

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No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No  ??? No

(Can be used when printing from SD card)

Example: M32 filename.gco

tba available in marlin(14/6/2014)

M33: Get the long name for an SD card file or folder

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No No No Yes No No No No No  ??? No

Get a long filename on the SD card from a short filename. Proposed by Marlin firmware, May 2015.

M34: Set SD file sorting options

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No No No Yes No No No No No  ??? No

Enable and disable SD card file-sorting, and/or set the folder sorting order. Proposed by Marlin firmware, May 2015.

M36: Return file information

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M36 filename.gco

Returns information for the specified SD card file in JSON format. A sample response is:

{"err":0,"size":457574,"height":4.00,"layerHeight":0.25,"filament":[6556.3],"generatedBy":"Slic3r 1.1.7 on 2014-11-09 at 17:11:32"}

The "err" field is zero if successful, nonzero if the file was not found or an error occurred while processing it. The "size" field should always be present if the operation was successful. The presence or absence of other fields depends on whether the corresponding values could be found by reading the file. The "filament" field is an array of the filament lengths required from each spool. The size is in bytes, all other values are in mm. The fields may appear in any order, and additional fields may be present.

If the file name parameter is not supplied and a file on the SD card is currently being printed, then information for that file is returned including additional field "fileName". This feature is used by the web interface any by PanelDue, so that if a connection is made when a file is already being printed, the name and other information about that file can be shown.

M37: Simulation mode

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

Used to switch between printing mode and simulation mode. Simulation mode allows the electronics to compute an accurate printing time, taking into account the maximum speeds, accelerations etc. that are configured.

M37 S1 enters simulation mode. All G and M codes will not be acted on, but the time they take to execute will be calculated.

M37 S0 leaves simulation mode.

M37 with no S parameter prints the time taken by the simulation, from the time it was first entered using M37 S1, up to the current point (if simulation mode is still active) or the point that the simulation was ended (if simulation mode is no longer active).

M40: Eject

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No No No No No No No No No  ??? No

If your RepRap machine can eject the parts it has built off the bed, this command executes the eject cycle. This usually involves cooling the bed and then performing a sequence of movements that remove the printed parts from it. The X, Y and Z position of the machine at the end of this cycle are undefined (though they can be found out using the M114 command, q.v.).

See also M240 and M241 below.

M41: Loop

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No No No No No No No No No  ??? No

Example: M41

If the RepRap machine was building a file from its own memory such as a local SD card (as opposed to a file being transmitted to it from a host computer) this goes back to the beginning of the file and runs it again. So, for example, if your RepRap is capable of ejecting parts from its build bed then you can set it printing in a loop and it will run and run. Use with caution - the only things that will stop it are:

  1. When you press the reset button,
  2. When the build material runs out (if your RepRap is set up to detect this), and
  3. When there's an error (such as a heater failure).

M42: Stop on material exhausted

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No No No No No No No No No  ??? No

Example: M42

If your RepRap can detect when its material runs out, this decides the behaviour when that happens. The X and Y axes are zeroed (but not Z), and then the machine shuts all motors and heaters off. You have to press reset to reactivate the machine. In other words, it parks itself and then executes an M0 command (q.v.).

M42: Switch I/O pin

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No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No  ??? No

Example: M42 P7 S255

M42 switches a general purpose I/O pin. Use M42 Px Sy to set pin x to value y, when omitting Px the LEDPIN will be used.

In Teacup, general purpose devices are handled like a heater, see M104.

M43: Stand by on material exhausted

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M43

If your RepRap can detect when its material runs out, this decides the behaviour when that happens. The X and Y axes are zeroed (but not Z), and then the machine shuts all motors and heaters off except the heated bed, the temperature of which is maintained. The machine will still respond to G and M code commands in this state.

M48: Measure Z-Probe repeatability

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No
Parameters
Pnnn number of points
Xnnn position on the X axis
Ynnn position on the Y axis
Vnnn verbosity
E engage
Lnnn legs of travel

As with G29, the E flag causes the probe to stow after each probe.

M70: Display message

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No No No No: See M117 No  ???  ??? No No Yes No

Example: M70 P200 Message

Instruct the machine to display a message on it's interface LCD. P is the time to display message for.

M72: Play a tone or song

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No No No No: See M300 No No  ??? No No Yes No

Example: M72 P2

Instruct the machine to play a preset song. Acceptable song IDs are machine specific. P is the ID of the song to play.

M73: Set build percentage

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No No No No No No  ??? No No Yes No

Example: M73 P50

Instruct the machine that the build has progressed to the specified percentage. The machine is expected to display this on it's interface board. If the percentage is exactly 0, then a Build Start Notification is sent. If the percentage is exactly 100, then a Build End notification is sent.

M80: ATX Power On

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No automatic Yes Yes Yes No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M80

Turns on the ATX power supply from standby mode to fully operational mode. No-op on electronics without standby mode.

Note: some firmwares, like Teacup, handle power on/off automatically, so this is redundant there. Also, see RAMPS wiring for ATX on/off

M81: ATX Power Off

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No automatic Yes Yes Yes No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M81

Turns off the ATX power supply. Counterpart to M80.

M82: Set extruder to absolute mode

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No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M82

makes the extruder interpret extrusion as absolute positions.

This is the default in repetier.

M83: Set extruder to relative mode

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No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M83

makes the extruder interpret extrusion values as relative positions.

M84: Stop idle hold

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No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M84

Stop the idle hold on all axis and extruder. In some cases the idle hold causes annoying noises, which can be stopped by disabling the hold. Be aware that by disabling idle hold during printing, you will get quality issues. This is recommended only in between or after printjobs.

On Marlin and Repetier, M84 can also be used to configure or disable the idle timeout. For example, "M84 S10" will idle the stepper motors after 10 seconds of inactivity. "M84 S0" will disable idle timeout; steppers will remain powered up regardless of activity.

M85: Set inactivity shutdown timer

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No No Yes Yes Yes No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M85 S30

Set inactivity shutdown timer with parameter S<seconds>. "M85 S0" will disable the inactivity shutdown time (default)

M92: Set axis_steps_per_unit

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M92 X<newsteps> Sprinter and Marlin

Allows programming of steps per unit of axis till the electronics are reset for the specified axis. Very useful for calibration.

M93: Send axis_steps_per_unit

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No No Yes No  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

M98: Call Macro/Subprogram

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M98 Pmymacro.g

Runs the macro in the file mymacro.g. In conventional G Codes for CNC machines the P parameter normally refers to a line number in the program itself (P2000 would run the Macro starting at line O2000, say). For RepRap, which almost always has some sort of mass storage device inbuilt, it simply refers to the name of a GCode file that is executed by the G98 call. That GCode file does not need to end with an M99 (return) as the end-of-file automatically causes a return. Macro calls cannot usually be nested or be recursive; i.e. you can't call a macro from a macro (though some implementations may allow this).

RepRapFirmware-dc42 and RepRapFirmware-zpl support nested macros and allow the filename to include a path. The default folder is /sys.

M99: Return from Macro/Subprogram

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M99

Returns from an M98 call.

M98: Get axis_hysteresis_mm

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No No No No No No No No No  ??? No

Deprecated - clashes with the G Code standard M98 above

Example: M98

Report the current hysteresis values in mm for all of the axis.

Proposed for Marlin

M99: Set axis_hysteresis_mm

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No No No No No No No No No  ??? No

Deprecated - clashes with the G Code standard M99 above

Example: M99 X<mm> Y<mm> Z<mm> E<mm>

Allows programming of axis hysteresis. Mechanical pulleys, gears and threads can have hysteresis when they change direction. That is, a certain number of steps occur before movement occurs. You can measure how many mm are lost to hysteresis and set their values with this command. Every time an axis changes direction, these extra mm will be added to compensate for the hysteresis.

Proposed for Marlin

M101: Turn extruder 1 on (Forward), Undo Retraction

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No Yes No No No No  ??? Yes No  ??? No

in Teacup firmware: If a DC extruder is present, turn that on. Else, undo filament retraction, which means, make the extruder ready for extrusion. Complement to M103.

in BFB/RapMan firmware: Turn extruder on (forward/filament in).

in other firmwares: Deprecated. Regarding filament retraction, see M227, M228, M229.

M102: Turn extruder 1 on (Reverse)

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No No No No No No  ??? Yes No  ??? No

In BFB/RapMan firmware: Turn extruder on Reverse (Still to add)

In other firmwares: Deprecated.

M103: Turn all extruders off, Extruder Retraction

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No Yes No No No No  ??? Yes No  ??? No

In Teacup firmware: If a DC extruder is present, turn that off. Else, retract the filament in the hope to prevent nozzle drooling. Complement to M101.

In BFB/RapMan firmware: Turn extruder off.

In other firmwares: Deprecated. Regarding extruder retraction, see M227, M228, M229.

M104: Set Extruder Temperature

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Parameters
Snnn Target temperature
Example
M104 S190

Set the temperature of the current extruder to 190oC and return control to the host immediately (i.e. before that temperature has been reached by the extruder). Duet-dc42 and other firmware also supports the optional T parameter (as generated by slic3r) to specify which tool the command applies to. See also M109.

This is deprecated because temperatures should be set using the G10 and T commands (q.v.).

Deprecation is subject to discussion. --Traumflug 11:33, 19 July 2012 (UTC)

M104 in Teacup Firmware

In Teacup Firmware, M104 can be additionally used to handle all devices using a temperature sensor. It supports the additional P parameter, which is a zero-based index into the list of sensors in config.h. For devices without a temp sensor, see M106.

Example: M104 P1 S100

Set the temperature of the device attached to the second temperature sensor to 100 °C.

M105: Get Extruder Temperature

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M105

Request the temperature of the current extruder and the build base in degrees Celsius. The temperatures are returned to the host computer. For example, the line sent to the host in response to this command looks like:

ok T:201 B:117

Expansion/generalization of M105 to be considered using S1 parameter as noted in Pronterface I/O Monitor

In Repetier you can add X0 to get raw values as well:

M105 X0
==> 11:05:48.910 : T:23.61 /0 @:0 T0:23.61 /0 @0:0 RAW0:3922 T1:23.89 /0 @1:0 RAW1:3920
Duet-dc42 extension

Duet-dc42 firmware returns a JSON-formatted response if parameter S2 or S3 is included. This is used by the touch-screen control panel. Additionally, parameter Rnn may be provided, where nn is the sequence number of the most recent G-code response that the client has already received.

The response comprises a single JSON object, with no nesting of objects or arrays, followed by newline. It is similar to the object returned by the web interface status request, but some fields are omitted. Here is a sample response when S2 is used:

{"status":"I","heaters":[25.0,29.0,28.3],"active":[-273.1,0.0,0.0],"standby":[-273.1,0.0,0.0],"hstat":[0,2,1],"pos":[-11.00,0.00,0.00],"extr":[0.0,0.0],"sfactor":100.00,
 "efactor":[100.00,100.00],"tool":1,"probe":"535","fanRPM":0,"homed":[0,0,0],"fraction_printed":0.572}

The meaning of these fields is:

status:  I=idle, P=printing from SD card, S=stopped (i.e. needs a reset), C=running config file, A=paused, D=pausing, R=resuming, B=busy (running a macro)
heaters: current heater temperatures, numbered as per the machine (typically, heater 0 is the bed)
active:  active temperatures of the heaters
standby: standby temperatures of the heaters
hstat:   status of the heaters, 0=off, 1=standby, 2=active, 3=fault
pos:     the X, Y and Z positions of the print head
extr:    the positions of the extruders
sfactor: the current speed factor (see M220 command)
efactor: the current extrusion factors (see M221 command)
tool:    the selected tool number. Zero typically means no tool selected.
probe:   the Z-probe reading
fanRPM:  the cooling fan RPM
homed:   the homed status of the X, Y and Z axes (or towers on a delta). 0=axis has not been homed so position is not reliable, 1=axis has been homed so position is reliable.
fraction_printed: the fraction of the file currently being printed that has been read and at least partially processed.
message: the message to be displayed on the screen (only present if there is a message to display)
timesLeft: an array of the estimated remaining print times (in seconds) calculated by different methods. These are currently based on the proportion of the file read, the proportion of the total filament consumed, and the proportion of the total layers already printed. Only present if a print from SD card is in progress.
seq:     the sequence number of the most recent G-code response or error message. Only present if the R parameter was provided and the current sequence number is greater.
resp:    the most recent G-code response or error message. Only present if the R parameter was provided and the current sequence number is greater.

The response when S3 is used comprises these fields plus some additional ones that do not generally change and therefore do not need to be fetched as often. The extra fields include:

myName:  the name of the printer
geometry: one of "cartesian", "delta", "corexy, "corexz" etc.

The fields may be in any order in the response. Other implementations may omit fields and/or add additional fields.

M106: Fan On

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn speed
Example
M106 S127

Turn on the cooling fan at half speed.

Mandatory parameter 'S' declares the PWM value (0-255). M106 S0 turns the fan off. In some implementations the pwm is specified by a real fraction: M106 S0.7.

M106 in Duet Firmware

Duet-dc42 firmware also supports an optional I parameter. If this parameter is present and greater than zero, the cooling fan output is inverted. This makes the cooling fan output suitable for feeding the PWM input of a 4-wire fan via a diode. If the parameter is present and zero or negative, the output is not inverted. If the parameter is not present, the inverted/non-inverted state remains unchanged. The default at power up is not inverted.

If the 'R' parameter is passed when using Duet-zpl firmware (0.96g+), the last-known fan value will be set. If the 'S' parameter is passed along with 'R', the firmware will not reset the last-known fan value. This may be useful for tool change macro files.

M106 in Teacup Firmware

Additionally to the above, Teacup Firmware uses M106 to control general devices. It supports the additional P parameter, which is an zero-based index into the list of heaters/devices in config.h.

Example: M106 P2 S255

Turn on device #3 at full speed/wattage.

Note: When turning on a temperature sensor equipped heater with M106 and M104 at the same time, temperature control will override the value given in M106 quickly.

M107: Fan Off

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Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No

Deprecated in Teacup firmware. Use M106 S0 instead.

M108: Set Extruder Speed

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Sets speed of extruder motor. (Deprecated in FiveD firmware, see M113)

M109: Set Extruder Temperature and Wait

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Yes not needed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Parameters
Snnn minimum target temperature, waits until heating
Rnnn maximum target temperature, waits until cooling (Sprinter)
Rnnn accurate target temperature, waits until heating and cooling (Marlin)
Example
M109 S215
M109 in Teacup

Not needed. To mimic Marlin behaviour, use M104 followed by M116.

M109 in Marlin, Sprinter (ATmega port), Duet

Set extruder heater temperature in degrees celsius and wait for this temperature to be achieved.

Example: M109 S185

Duet-dc42 firmware also supports the optional T parameter (as generated by slic3r) to specify which tool the command refers to (see below).

M109 in Sprinter (4pi port)

Parameters: S (optional), set target temperature value. If not specified, waits for the temperature set by M104. R (optional), sets target temperature range maximum value.

Example: M109 S185 R240 //sets extruder temperature to 185 and waits for the temperature to be between 185 - 240.

If you have multiple extruders, use T or P parameter to specify which extruder you want to set/wait.

Another way to do this is to use G10.

M109 in MakerBot

Example: M109 S70 T0

Sets the target temperature for the current build platform. S is the temperature to set the platform to, in degrees Celsius. T is the platform to heat.

M110: Set Current Line Number

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Yes not needed No No Yes Yes  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M110 N123

Set the current line number to 123. Thus the expected next line after this command will be 124.

M111: Set Debug Level

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Yes Debug No No Yes No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M111 S6

Set the level of debugging information transmitted back to the host to level 6. The level is the OR of three bits:

#define DEBUG_ECHO (1<<0)
#define DEBUG_INFO (1<<1)
#define DEBUG_ERRORS (1<<2)
#define DEBUG_DRYRUN (1<<3) // repetier-firmware
#define DEBUG_COMMUNICATION (1<<4) // repetier-firmware

Thus 6 means send information and errors, but don't echo commands. (This is the RepRap default.)

For firmware that supports ethernet and web interfaces M111 S9 will turn web debug information on without changing any other debug settings, and M111 S8 will turn it off. Web debugging usually means that HTTP requests will be echoed to the USB interface, as will the responses.

M112: Emergency Stop

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Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M112

Any moves in progress are immediately terminated, then RepRap shuts down. All motors and heaters are turned off. It can be started again by pressing the reset button on the master microcontroller. See also M0 and M1.

M113: Set Extruder PWM

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Yes No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M113

Set the PWM for the currently-selected extruder. On its own this command sets RepRap to use the on-board potentiometer on the extruder controller board to set the PWM for the currently-selected extruder's stepper power. With an S field:

M113 S0.7

it causes the PWM to be set to the S value (70% in this instance). M113 S0 turns the extruder off, until an M113 command other than M113 S0 is sent.

M114: Get Current Position

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M114

This causes the RepRap machine to report its current X, Y, Z and E coordinates to the host.

For example, the machine returns a string such as:

ok C: X:0.00 Y:0.00 Z:0.00 E:0.00

In Marlin first 3 numbers is the position for the planner. The other positions are the positions from the stepper function. This helps for debugging a previous stepper function bug.

X:0.00 Y:0.00 RZ:0.00 LZ:0.00 Count X:0.00 Y:0.00 RZ:41.02 LZ:41.02

M115: Get Firmware Version and Capabilities

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M115

Request the Firmware Version and Capabilities of the current microcontroller The details are returned to the host computer as key:value pairs separated by spaces and terminated with a linefeed.

sample data from firmware:

ok PROTOCOL_VERSION:0.1 FIRMWARE_NAME:FiveD FIRMWARE_URL:http%3A//reprap.org MACHINE_TYPE:Mendel EXTRUDER_COUNT:1

This M115 code is inconsistently implemented, and should not be relied upon to exist, or output correctly in all cases. An initial implementation was committed to svn for the FiveD Reprap firmware on 11 Oct 2010. Work to more formally define protocol versions is currently (October 2010) being discussed. See M115_Keywords for one draft set of keywords and their meanings.

M116: Wait

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Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M116

Wait for all temperatures and other slowly-changing variables to arrive at their set values. See also M109.

Duet-dc42 firmware version 0.78c and later supports an optional P parameter, used to specify a tool number. If this parameter is present, then the system only waits for temperatures associated with that tool to arrive at their set values. This is useful during tool changes, to wait for the new tool to heat up without necessarily waiting for the old one to cool down fully.

Users of Duet-zpl may specify a list of the heaters to be waited for by specifying an 'H' parameter. Duet-zpl v1.08d+ further supports an additional 'C' parameter to wait for the chamber temperature to be reached.

M117: Get Zero Position

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Yes No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M117

This causes the RepRap machine to report the X, Y, Z and E coordinates in steps not mm to the host that it found when it last hit the zero stops for those axes. That is to say, when you zero X, the x coordinate of the machine when it hits the X endstop is recorded. This value should be 0, of course. But if the machine has drifted (for example by dropping steps) then it won't be. This command allows you to measure and to diagnose such problems. (E is included for completeness. It doesn't normally have an endstop.)

M117: Display Message

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No No No Yes Yes Yes dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M117 Hello World

This causes the given message to be shown in the status line on an attached LCD. The above command will display Hello World.

M118: Negotiate Features

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M118 P42

This M-code is for future proofing. NO firmware or hostware supports this at the moment. It is used in conjunction with M115's FEATURES keyword.

See Protocol_Feature_Negotiation for more info.

M119: Get Endstop Status

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No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M119

Returns the current state of the configured X, Y, Z endstops. Takes into account any 'inverted endstop' settings, so one can confirm that the machine is interpreting the endstops correctly.

M120: Push

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No No No No No Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Push the state of the RepRap machine onto a stack. Exactly what variables get pushed depends on the implementation (as does the depth of the stack - a typical depth might be 5). A sensible minimum, however, might be

  1. Current feedrate, and
  2. Whether moves (and separately extrusion) are relative or absolute

M121: Pop

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Recover the last state pushed onto the stack.

M120: Enable endstop detection

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No No No Yes No No No No No  ??? No

M121: Disable endstop detection

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No No No Yes No No No No No  ??? No

M122: Diagnose

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Sending an M122 causes the RepRap to transmit diagnostic information, for eaxmple via a USB serial link.

M123: Tachometer value

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Sending an M123 causes the RepRap to transmit filament tachometer values from all extruders.

M124: Immediate motor stop

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Immediately stops all motors.

M126: Open Valve

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Yes No No Yes No No  ??? No No Yes No

Example: M126 P500

Open the extruder's valve (if it has one) and wait 500 milliseconds for it to do so.

M126 in MakerBot

Example: M126 T0

Enables an extra output attached to a specific toolhead (e.g. fan)

M127: Close Valve

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Yes No No Yes No No  ??? No No Yes No

Example: M127 P400

Close the extruder's valve (if it has one) and wait 400 milliseconds for it to do so.

M127 in MakerBot

Example: M127 T0

Disables an extra output attached to a specific toolhead (e.g. fan)

M128: Extruder Pressure PWM

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No No No  ??? No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M128 S255

PWM value to control internal extruder pressure. S255 is full pressure.

M129: Extruder pressure off

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No No No  ??? No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M129 P100

In addition to setting Extruder pressure to 0, you can turn the pressure off entirely. P400 will wait 100ms to do so.

M130: Set PID P value

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No Yes No No: See M301 No No: See M301 No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Pnnn heater number
Snnn proportional (Kp)
Example
M130 P0 S8.0  ; Sets heater 0 P factor to 8.0

Teacup can control multiple heaters with independent PID controls. For the default shown at https://github.com/Traumflug/Teacup_Firmware/blob/master/config.default.h, heater 0 is the extruder (P0), and heater 1 is the bed (P1).

Teacup's PID proportional units are in pwm/255 counts per quarter C, so to convert from counts/C, you would divide by 4. Conversely, to convert from count/qC to count/C, multiply by 4. In the above example, S=8 represents a Kp=8*4=32 counts/C.

M131: Set PID I value

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No Yes No No: See M301 No No: See M301 No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Pnnn heater number
Snnn integral (Ki)
Example
M131 P1 S0.5  ; Sets heater 1 I factor to 0.5

Teacup's PID integral units are in pwm/255 counts per (quarter C*quarter second), so to convert from counts/qCqs, you would divide by 16. Conversely, to convert from count/qCqs to count/Cs, multiply by 16. In the above example, S=0.5 represents a Ki=0.5*16=8 counts/Cs.

M132: Set PID D value

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No Yes No No: See M301 No No: See M301  ??? No No Yes No
Parameters
Pnnn heater number
Snnn derivative (Kd)
Example
M132 P0 S24  ; Sets heater 0 D factor to 24.0

Teacup's PID derivative units are in pwm/255 counts per (quarter degree per 2 seconds), so to convert from counts/C, you would divide by 4. Conversely, to convert from count/qC to count/C, multiply by 8. In the above example, S=24 represents a Kd=24*8=194 counts/(C/s).

M132 in MakerBot

Example: M132 X Y Z A B

Loads the axis offset of the current home position from the EEPROM and waits for the buffer to empty.

M133: Set PID I limit value

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No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No
Parameters
Pnnn heater number
Snnn integral limit (Ki)
Example
M133 P1 S264  ; Sets heater 1 I limit value to 264

Teacup's PID integral limit units are in quarter-C*quarter-seconds, so to convert from C-s, you would multiply by 16. Conversely, to convert from qC*qs to C*s, divide by 16. In the above example, S=264 represents an integral limit of 16.5 C*s.

M133 in MakerBot

Example: M133 T0 P500

Instruct the machine to wait for the toolhead to reach its target temperature. T is the extruder to wait for. P if present, sets the time limit.

M134: Write PID values to EEPROM

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No Yes No No No No: See M504 No No No Yes No

Example: M134

M134 in MakerBot

Example: M134 T0 P500

Instruct the machine to wait for the platform to reach its target temperature. T is the platform to wait for. P if present, sets the time limit.

M135: Set PID sample interval

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Example: M135 S300

Set the PID to measure temperatures and calculate the power to send to the heaters every 300ms.

M135 in MakerBot

Example: M135 T0

Instructs the machine to change its toolhead. Also updates the State Machine's current tool_index. T is the toolhead for the machine to switch to and the new tool_index for the state machine to use.

M136: Print PID settings to host

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No Debug No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M136 P1 # print heater 0 PID parameters to host

M140: Set Bed Temperature (Fast)

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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn Target temperature
Example
M140 S55

Set the temperature of the build bed to 55oC and return control to the host immediately (i.e. before that temperature has been reached by the bed). There is an optional R field that sets the bed standby temperature: M140 S65 R40.

Duet-zpl allows the bed heater to be switched off if the absolute negative temperature (-273.15) is passed as active temperature. In this case the current active temperature is not affected:

M140 S-273.15

M141: Set Chamber Temperature (Fast)

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No uses M104 No No No No zpl No Yes  ??? No

Example: M141 S30

Set the temperature of the chamber to 30oC and return control to the host immediately (i.e. before that temperature has been reached by the chamber).

Duet-zpl 1.08d+ implements M141 and accepts an additional 'H' parameter to set the chamber heater number.

M142: Holding Pressure

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M142 S1

Set the holding pressure of the bed to 1 bar.

The holding pressure is in bar. For hardware which only has on/off holding, when the holding pressure is zero, turn off holding, when the holding pressure is greater than zero, turn on holding.

M143: Maximum hot-end temperature

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M143 S275

Set the maximum temperature of the hot-end to 275C

When temperature of the hot-end exceeds this value, take countermeasures, for instance an emergency stop. This is to prevent hot-end damage.

M144: Stand By Your Bed

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M144

Switch the bed to its standby temperature. M140 turns it back to its active temperature; no need for any arguments for that use of M140.

M146: Set Chamber Humidity

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No
Parameters
Rnnn Relative humidity in percent
Example
M146 R60

Set the relative humidity of the chamber to 60% and return control to the host immediately (i.e. before that humidity has been reached by the chamber).

M149: Set temperature units

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No
Parameters
C Flag to treat temperature as degrees Celsius
K Flag to treat temperature as Kelvin
Example
M149 K

It affects the S or R values in the codes M104, M109, M140, M141, M143, M190 and G10. The default is M149 C.

M150: Set display color

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No
Parameters
Rnnn red
Unnn green
Bnnn blue
Example
M150 R255 U128 B192

Set BlinkM Color via I2C. Range for values: 0-255

M160: Number of mixed materials

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M160 S4

This command has been superseded by the tool definition command M563 (see below).

Set the number of materials, N, that the current extruder can handle to the number specified. The default is 1.

When N >= 2, then the E field that controls extrusion requires N values separated by colons ":" after it like this:

M160 S4
G1 X90.6 Y13.8 E2.24:2.24:2.24:15.89
G1 X70.6 E0:0:0:42.4
G1 E42.4:0:0:0

The second line moves straight to the point (90.6, 13.8) extruding a total of 22.4mm of filament. The mix ratio for the move is 0.1:0.1:0.1:0.7.

The third line moves back 20mm in X extruding 42.4mm of filament.

The fourth line has no physical effect.

M163: Set weight of mixed material

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No No No No Yes: 0.92 No No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn extruder number
Pnnn weight

Set weight for this mixing extruder drive.

M164: Store weights

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No No No No Yes: 0.92 No No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn virtual extruder number
Pnnn store to eeprom (P0 = no, P1 = yes)

Store weights as virtual extruder S.

M190: Wait for bed temperature to reach target temp

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No No: See M116 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn minimum target temperature, waits until heating
Rnnn accurate target temperature, waits until heating and cooling (Marlin)
Example
M190 S60

This will wait until the bed temperature reaches 60 degrees, printing out the temperature of the hot end and the bed every second.

M191: Wait for chamber temperature to reach target temp

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No No No No No No No No Yes  ??? No

Example: M191 P60

Set the temperature of the build chamber to 60 °C and wait for the temperature to be reached.

M200: Set filament diameter

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Without parameters loads default grid, and with specified extension attempts to load the specified grid. If not available will not modify the current grid. If Z was saved with the grid file, it will load the saved Z with the grid.

M200 Dm.mmm sets the filament diameter to m.mmm millimeters. It is used with 'volumetric calibration' and G-code generated for an ideal 1.128mm diameter filament, which has a volume of 1mm^3 per millimeter. The intention is to be able to generate filament-independent g-code. (See Triffid_Hunter's_Calibration_Guide#Optional:_Switch_to_volumetric_E_units and http://wooden-mendel.blogspot.com/2011/09/volumetric-stage-two.html for more information.)

M200 D0 or M200 D1.128 ; reset E multiplier to 1, since sqrt(1/pi)*2=1.128

See also Gcode#M119:_Get_Endstop_Status

Question: what does a firmware do with filament diameter? Has this an effect on how much an E command moves the extruder motor? --Traumflug 11:34, 14 October 2012 (UTC) Yes, Marlin uses this to set a 'volumetric_multiplier' by which the E-steps of a move are scaled in the planner. DaveX (talk) 16:44, 12 April 2014 (PDT) Smoothie implements the same thing as Marlin --Arthurwolf (talk) 05:23, 10 November 2014 (PST)

M201: Set max printing acceleration

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Example: M201 X1000 Y1000 Z100 E2000

Sets the acceleration that axes can do in units/second^2 for print moves. For consistency with the rest of G Code movement this should be in units/(minute^2), but that gives really silly numbers and one can get lost in all the zeros. So for this we use seconds.

M202: Set max travel acceleration

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in units/s^2 for travel moves (M202 X1000 Y1000) Unused in Marlin!!

M203: Set maximum feedrate

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Example: M203 X6000 Y6000 Z300 E10000

Sets the maximum feedrates that your machine can do in mm/min.

M203 Repetier

Set temperture monitor to Sx.

M204: Set default acceleration

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S normal moves T filament only moves (M204 S3000 T7000) im mm/sec^2 also sets minimum segment time in ms (B20000) to prevent buffer underruns and M20 minimum feedrate


Marlin notes: After Mar11-2015, the M204 options have changed in Marlin:

P = Printing moves

R = Retract only (no X, Y, Z) moves

T = Travel (non printing) moves


The command "M204 P800 T3000 R9000" set the acceleration for printing movements to 800mm/s^2, for travels to 3000mm/s^2 and for retracts to 9000mm/s^2.

M204 Repetier

M204 X[Kp] Y[Ki] Z[Kd] -

Set PID parameter. Values are 100*real value.

M205: Advanced settings

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minimum travel speed S=while printing T=travel only, B=minimum segment time X= maximum xy jerk, Z=maximum Z jerk, E=maximum E jerk

M205 Repetier

Output EEPROM settings.

M206:

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M206 Marlin, Sprinter, Smoothie - Set home offset

Example: M206 X10.0 Y10.0 Z-0.4

The values specified are added to the endstop position when the axes are referenced. The same can be achieved with a G92 right after homing (G28, G161).

With Marlin firmware, this value can be saved to EEPROM using the M500 command.

A similar command is G10, aligning these two is subject to discussion.

With Marlin 1.0.0 RC2 a negative value for z lifts(!) your printhead.

M206 Repetier - Set eeprom value

M206 T[type] P[pos] [Sint(long] [Xfloat] Set eeprom value

Example: M206 T3 P39 X19.9

Set Jerk to 19.9

M207: Calibrate z axis by detecting z max length

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Example: M207

After placing the tip of the nozzle in the position you expect to be considered Z=0, issue this command to calibrate the Z axis. It will perform a z axis homing routine and calculate the distance traveled in this process. The result is stored in EEPROM as z_max_length. For using this calibration method the machine must be using a Z MAX endstop.

This procedure is usually more reliable than mechanical adjustments of a Z MIN endstop.

M207: Set retract length

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Parameters
Snnn positive length to retract, in mm
Fnnn feedrate, in mm/min
Znnn additional zlift/hop
Example
M207 S4.0 F2400 Z0.075

Sets retract length, stays in mm regardless of M200 setting

M208: Set axis max travel

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Example: M208 X250 Y210 Z180

The values specified set the software limits for axis travel in the positive direction.

With Marlin firmware, this value can be saved to EEPROM using the M500 command.

With Duet-dc42 firmware, on a Cartesian printer you can also use this command to specify software limits for axis travel in the negative direction, by adding parameter S1. The axis limits you set are also the positions assumed when an endstop is triggered.

M208: Set unretract length

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Parameters
Snnn positive length surplus to the M207 Snnn, in mm
Fnnn feedrate, in mm/sec

Sets recover=unretract length.

M209: Enable automatic retract

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Example: M209 S1

This boolean value S 1=true or 0=false enables automatic retract detect if the slicer did not support G10/11: every normal extrude-only move will be classified as retract depending on the direction.

M210: Set homing feedrates

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Example: M210 X1000 Y1500

Set the feedrates used for homing to the values specified in mm per minute.

M211: Disable/Enable software endstops

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The boolean value S 1=enable or 0=disable controls state of software endstop.

The boolean value X, Y or Z 1=max endstop or 0=min endstop selects which endstop is controlled.

Example: M211 X1 Y1 Z1 S0

Disables X,Y,Z max endstops

Example: M211 X0 S1

Enables X min endstop

Example: M211

Prints current state of software endstops.

M212: Set Bed Level Sensor Offset

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This G-Code command is known to be available in the newer versions of PrintrBot's branch of Marlin. It may not be available in other firmware.

Example: M212 Z-0.2

Set the Z home to 0.2 mm lower than where the sensor says Z home is. This is extremely useful when working with printers with hard-to-move sensors, like the PrintrBot Metal Plus.

PrintrBot suggests that the user make minor (0.1-0.2) adjustments between attempts and immediately executes M500 & M501 after setting this.

M218: Set Hotend Offset

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Sets hotend offset (in mm): T<extruder_number> X<offset_on_X> Y<offset_on_Y>.

Example: M218 T1 X50 Y0.5

M220: Set speed factor override percentage

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Example: M220 S80

S<factor in percent>- set speed factor override percentage

M221: Set extrude factor override percentage

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Example: M221 S70

S<factor in percent>- set extrude factor override percentage

M220: Turn off AUX V1.0.5

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M221: Turn on AUX V1.0.5

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M222: Set speed of fast XY moves

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M223: Set speed of fast Z moves

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M224: Enable extruder during fast moves

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M225: Disable on extruder during fast moves

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M226: Gcode Initiated Pause

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No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes  ??? No

Example: M226

Initiates a pause in the same way as if the pause button is pressed. That is, program execution is stopped and the printer waits for user interaction. This matches the behaviour of M1 in the NIST RS274NGC G-code standard and M0 in Marlin firmware.

M226: Wait for pin state

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Parameters
Pnnn pin number
Snnn pin state
Example
M226 P2 S1

Wait for a pin to be in some state.

M227: Enable Automatic Reverse and Prime

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Example: M227 P1600 S1600

P and S are steps.

"Reverse and Prime" means, the extruder filament is retracted some distance when not in use and pushed forward the same amount before going into use again. This shall help to prevent drooling of the extruder nozzle. Teacup firmware implements this with M101/M103.

M228: Disable Automatic Reverse and Prime

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Example: M228

See also M227.

M229: Enable Automatic Reverse and Prime

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Example: M229 P1.0 S1.0

P and S are extruder screw rotations. See also M227.

M230: Disable / Enable Wait for Temperature Change

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Example: M230 S1

S1 Disable wait for temperature change S0 Enable wait for temperature change

M231: Set OPS parameter

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M231 S[OPS_MODE] X[Min_Distance] Y[Retract] Z[Backslash] F[ReatrctMove]

M232: Read and reset max. advance values

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M240: Trigger camera

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Example: M240

Triggers a camera to take a photograph. (Add to your per-layer GCode.)

M240: Start conveyor belt motor / Echo off

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Example: M240

The conveyor belt allows to start mass production of a part with a reprap.

Echoing may be controlled in some firmwares with M111

M241: Stop conveyor belt motor / echo on

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Example: M241

Echoing may be controlled in some firmwares with M111

M245: Start cooler

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Example: M245

used to cool parts/heated-bed down after printing for easy remove of the parts after print

M246: Stop cooler

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Example: M246

M250: Set LCD contrast

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Example: M250 C20

Sets LCD contrast C<contrast value> (value 0..63), if available.

M251: Measure Z steps from homing stop (Delta printers)

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M251 S0 - Reset, S1 - Print, S2 - Store to Z length (also EEPROM if enabled)

(This is a Repetier-Firmware only feature)

M280: Set servo position

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(Marlin, Repetier M340)

Set servo position absolute. P: servo index, S: angle or microseconds (Marlin)

M300: Play beep sound

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No No No Yes Yes No dc42 No Yes  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn frequency in Hz
Pnnn duration in milliseconds
Example
M300 S300 P1000

Play beep sound, use to notify important events like the end of printing. See working example on R2C2 electronics. Also supported by duet-dc42 firmware via the sounder on the add-on touch screen control panel.

M301: Set PID parameters

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Parameters
Hnnn heater number (Smoothie uses 'S')
Pnnn proportional (Kp)
Innn integral (Ki)
Dnnn derivative (Kd)
Examples
M301 H1 P1 I2 D3 ; Marlin
M301 H1 P1 I2 D3 T0.2 B20 W127 S0.8 ; RepRapFirmware (v1.09 onwards), Duet-dc42
M301 S0 P30 I10 D10 ; Smoothie

Sets Proportional (P), Integral (I) and Derivative (D) values for hot end. See also PID Tuning.

Marlin

Hot end only; see M304 for bed PID. H is the heater number, default 1 (i.e. first extruder heater).

Duet-dc42 and RepRapFirmware (v1.09 onwards)

H: Is the heater number, and is compulsory. H0 is the bed, H1 is the first hot end, H2 the second etc.
P: Interprets a negative P term as indicating that bang-bag control should be used instead of PID (not recommended for the hot end, but OK for the bed heater).
I: Integral value D: Derivative value T: Is the approximate additional PWM (on a scale of 0 to 255) needed to maintain temperature, per degree C above room temperature. Used to preset the I-accumulator when switching from heater fully on/off to PID.
S: PWM scaling factor, to allow for variation in heater power and supply voltage. Is designed to allow a correction to be made for a change in heater power and/or power supply voltage without having to change all the other parameters. For example, an S factor of 0.8 means that the final output of the PID controller should be scaled to 0.8 times the standard value, which would compensate for a heater that is 25% more powerful than the standard one or a supply voltage that is 12.5% higher than standard.
W: Wind-up. Sets the maximum value of I-term, must be high enough to reach 245C for ABS printing.
B: PID Band. Errors larger than this cause heater to be on or off.

An example using all of these would be:

M301 H1 P20 I0.5 D100 T0.4 S1 W180 B30
Smoothie

S0 is 0 for the hotend, and 1 for the bed, other numbers may apply to your configuration, depending on the order in which you declare temperature control modules.

Other implementations

W: Wind-up. Sets the maximum value of I-term, so it does not overwhelm other PID values, and the heater stays on. (Check firmware support - Sprinter, Marlin?) Example:

M301 W125
Teacup

See M130, M131, M132, M133 for Teacup's codes for setting the PID parameters.

M302: Allow cold extrudes

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This tells the printer to allow movement of the extruder motor, when the hotend is not at printing temperature

Example: M302

When using RepRapFirmware, running M302 will only report the current cold extrusion state. To allow or deny cold extrudes/retracts, run either "M302 P1" or "M302 P0".

M303: Run PID tuning

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PID Tuning refers to a control algorithm used in some repraps to tune heating behavior for hot ends and heated beds. This command generates Proportional (Kp), Integral (Ki), and Derivative (Kd) values for the hotend or bed (E-1). Send the appropriate code and wait for the output to update the firmware.

Hot end usage:

M303 S<temperature> C<cycles>

Bed usage:

M303 E-1 C<cycles> S<temperature>

Example:

M303 C8 S175

Smoothie's syntax, where E0 is the first temperature control module (usually the hot end) and E1 is the second temperature control module (usually the bed):

M303 E0 S190

M304: Set PID parameters - Bed

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Parameters
Pnnn proportional (Kp)
Innn integral (Ki)
Dnnn derivative (Kd)
Examples
M304 P1 I2 D3 ; set kP=3, kI=2, kD=3
M301 P1 I2 D3 T0.7 H0 B20 W127 ; Duet-dc42 firmware
M304  ; Report parameters

Sets Proportional, Integral and Derivative values for bed. Duet-dc42 firmware interprets a negative P term as indicating that bang-bag control should be used instead of PID. In Duet-dc42 firmware, this command is identical to M301 except that the H parameter (heater number) defaults to zero.

See also PID Tuning.

M304 in RepRapPro version of Marlin: Set thermistor values

In the RepRapPro version of Marlin ( https://github.com/reprappro/Marlin ) M304 is used to set thermistor values (as M305 is in later firmwares). RRP Marlin calculates temperatures on the fly, rather than using a temperature table. M304 Sets the parameters for temperature measurement.

Example: M304 H1 B4200 R4800 T100000

This tells the firmware that for heater 1 (H parameter: 0 = heated bed, H = first extruder), the thermistor beta (B parameter) is 4200, the thermistor series resistance (R parameter) is 4.8Kohms, the thermistor 25C resistance (T parameter) is 100Kohms. All parameters other than H are optional. If only the H parameter is given, the currently-used values are displayed. They are also displayed within the response to M503.

M305: Set thermistor and ADC parameters

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Sets the parameters for temperature measurement. Supported by RepRapFirmware from 0.78c, and Duet-dc42 firmware.

Example: M305 P1 T100000 R1000 B4200

This tells the firmware that for heater 1 (P parameter: 0 = heated bed, 1 = first extruder) the thermistor 25C resistance (T parameter) is 100Kohms, the thermistor series resistance (R parameter) is 1Kohms, the thermistor beta (B parameter) is 4200. All parameters other than P are optional. If only the P parameter is given, the existing values are displayed.

Additionally, Duet-dc42 firmware supports an ADC correction functionality and a thermistor selection facility.

Example: M305 P1 T100000 R1000 B4200 H14 L-11 X2

Here the ADC high end correction (H parameter) is 14, the ADC low end correction (L parameter) is -11, and thermistor input #2 is used to measure the temperature of heater #1.

M306: set home offset calculated from toolhead position

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Example: M306 Z0

The values specified are added to the calculated end stop position when the axes are referenced. The calculated value is derived from the distance of the toolhead from the current axis zero point.

The user would typically place the toolhead at the zero point of the axis and issue the M306 command.

This value can be saved to EEPROM using the M500 command (as M206 value).

Implemented in Smoothieware

M320: Activate autolevel(Repetier)

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No No No No Yes No  ??? No No  ??? No

(Repetier only)

M321: Deactivate autolevel(Repetier)

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No No No No Yes No  ??? No No  ??? No

(Repetier only)

M322: Reset autolevel matrix

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Example: M322 S1

Parameter S1 is mandatory

(Repetier only)

M340: Control the servos

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(Repetier only ,Marlin see M280)

M340 P<servoId> S<pulseInUS> / ServoID = 0..3 pulseInUs = 500..2500

Servos are controlled by a pulse width normally between 500 and 2500 with 1500ms in center position. 0 turns servo off.

M350: Set microstepping mode

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Sets microstepping mode.

Warning: Steps per unit remains unchanged.

Usage
M350 Snn Xnn Ynn Znn Enn Bnn
Parameters
Not all parameters need to be used, but at least one should be used
Snn Set stepping mode for all drivers
Xnn Set stepping mode for the X axis
Ynn Set stepping mode for the Y axis
Znn Set stepping mode for the Z axis
Enn Set stepping mode for Extruder 0
Bnn Set stepping mode for Extruder 1
Modes (nn)
1 = full step
2 = half step
4 = quarter step
8 = 1/8 step
16 = 1/16 step
Examples
M350 S16 (reset all drivers to the default 1/16 micro-stepping)
M350 Z1 (set the Z-axis' driver to use full steps)
M350 E4 B4 (set both extruders to use quarter steps)

M351: Toggle MS1 MS2 pins directly

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Example: M351

M355: Turn case lights on/off

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No use M106 No No Yes: 0.92.2 No No No No  ??? No
Examples
M355 S1 ; Enable lights
M355 S0 ; Disable lights
M355 ; Report status

Every call or change over LCD menu sends a state change for connected hosting software like

Case lights on
Case lights off
No case lights

M360: Report firmware configuration

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Target

This command helps hosting software to detect configuration details, which the user would need to enter otherwise. It should reduce configuration time considerably if supported.

Example
M360
Response
Config:Baudrate:250000
Config:InputBuffer:127
Config:NumExtruder:2
Config:MixingExtruder:0
Config:HeatedBed:0
Config:SDCard:1
Config:Fan:1
Config:LCD:1
Config:SoftwarePowerSwitch:1
Config:XHomeDir:-1
Config:YHomeDir:-1
Config:ZHomeDir:-1
Config:SupportG10G11:1
Config:SupportLocalFilamentchange:1
Config:CaseLights:0
Config:ZProbe:1
Config:Autolevel:0
Config:EEPROM:1
Config:PrintlineCache:24
Config:JerkXY:30.00
Config:JerkZ:0.30
Config:RetractionLength:3.00
Config:RetractionLongLength:13.00
Config:RetractionSpeed:40.00
Config:RetractionZLift:0.00
Config:RetractionUndoExtraLength:0.00
Config:RetractionUndoExtraLongLength:0.00
Config:RetractionUndoSpeed:0.00
Config:XMin:0.00
Config:YMin:0.00
Config:ZMin:0.00
Config:XMax:250.00
Config:YMax:150.00
Config:ZMax:90.00
Config:XSize:250.00
Config:YSize:150.00
Config:ZSize:90.00
Config:XPrintAccel:250.00
Config:YPrintAccel:250.00
Config:ZPrintAccel:100.00
Config:XTravelAccel:250.00
Config:YTravelAccel:250.00
Config:ZTravelAccel:100.00
Config:PrinterType:Cartesian
Config:MaxBedTemp:120
Config:Extr.1:Jerk:50.00
Config:Extr.1:MaxSpeed:100.00
Config:Extr.1:Acceleration:10000.00
Config:Extr.1:Diameter:0.00
Config:Extr.1:MaxTemp:220
Config:Extr.2:Jerk:50.00
Config:Extr.2:MaxSpeed:100.00
Config:Extr.2:Acceleration:10000.00
Config:Extr.2:Diameter:0.00
Config:Extr.2:MaxTemp:220

SCARA calibration codes (Morgan)

In order to ease calibration of Reprap Morgan, the following M-codes are used to set the machine up

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No No No Partial No Yes No No No  ??? No

M360: Move to Theta 0 degree position

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

The arms move into a position where the Theta steering arm is parallel to the top platform edge. The user then calibrates the position by moving the arms with the jog buttons in software like pronterface until it is perfectly parallel. Using M114 will then display the calibration offset that can then be programmed into the unit using M206 (Home offset) X represents Theta.

Smoothieware: M360 P0 will take the current position as parallel to the platform edge, and store the offset in the homing trim offset (M666) No further user interaction is needed.

M361: Move to Theta 90 degree position

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

Theta move to 90 degrees with platform edge. User calibrates by using jog arms to place exactly 90 degrees. Steps per degree can then be read out by using M114, and programmed using M92. X represents Theta. Program Y (Psi) to the same value initially. Remember to repeat M360 after adjusting steps per degree.

Smoothieware: M360 P0 will accept the current position as 90deg to platform edge. New steps per angle is calculated and entered into memory (M92) No further user interaction is required, except to redo M360.

M362: Move to Psi 0 degree position

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

Arms move to Psi 0 degree. Check only after other Theta calibrations

M363: Move to Psi 90 degree position

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

Arms move to Psi 90 degree. Check only after other Theta calibrations

M364: Move to Psi + Theta 90 degree position

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

Move arms to form a 90 degree angle between the inner and outer Psi arms. Calibrate by moving until angle is exactly 90 degree. Read out with M114, and calibrate value into Home offset M206. Psi is represented by Y.

Smoothieware: M364 P0 will accept the current position as 90deg between arms. The offset is stored as a trim offset (M666) and no further user interaction is required except to save all changes via M500

M365: SCARA scaling factor

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No No No Experimental No Yes No No No  ??? No

Adjust X Y and Z scaling by entering the factor. 100% scaling (default) is represented by 1

M370: Morgan manual bed level - clear map

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

Clear the map and prepare for calibration

Usage
M370
M370 X<divisions> Y<divisions>

Without parameters is defaults to X5 Y5 (25 calibration points) When specifying parameters, uneven numbers are recommended.

M371: Move to next calibration position

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

Move to the next position for calibration. User moves the bed towards the hotend until it just touches

M372: Record calibration value, and move to next position

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

The position of the bed is recorded and the machine moves to the next position. Repeat until all positions programmed

M373: End bed level calibration mode

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

End calibration mode and enable z correction matrix. Does not save current matrix

M374: Save calibration grid

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

Saves the calibration grid. (Smoothieware)

Usage
M374
M374 <file extension> Z

Without parameters safes the grid into the default grid file that gets loaded at boot Parameter specifies the extension of the grid file - useful for special grid files such as for a special print surface like a removable print plate. Addition of Z will additionally save the M206 Z homing offset into the grid file

M375: Display matrix / Load Matrix

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No No No No No Yes No No No  ??? No

Display the bed level calibration matrix (Marlin) Load Grid matrix file (Smoothieware)

Usage
M375
M375 <file extension>

Without parameters loads default grid, and with specified extension attempts to load the specified grid. If not available will not modify the current grid. If Z was saved with the grid file, it will load the saved Z with the grid.

M380: Activate solenoid

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No No No Yes  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M380

Activates solenoid on active extruder.

M381: Disable all solenoids

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No No No Yes  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M381

M400: Wait for current moves to finish

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No No Yes Yes Yes Yes  ??? No Yes  ??? No

Finishes all current moves and and thus clears the buffer. That's identical to G4 P0.

Example: M400

M401: Lower z-probe

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No No No Yes  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M401

Lower z-probe if present.

M402: Raise z-probe

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No No No Yes  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M402

Raise z-probe if present.

M404: Filament width and nozzle diameter

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No No No Yes No No Partial No No  ??? No

Example: M404 N1.75

N<dia in mm> Enter the nominal filament width (3mm, 1.75mm) or will display nominal filament width without parameters.

While Marlin only accepts the N parameter, Duet-zpl further allows to specify the nozzle diameter (in mm) via the D-parameter. It is used to properly detect the first layer height when a new print is being started.

Example: M404 N3.0 D1.0

M405: Filament Sensor on

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M405

Turn on Filament Sensor extrusion control. Optional D<delay in cm> to set delay in centimeters between sensor and extruder.

M406: Filament Sensor off

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M406

Turn off Filament Sensor extrusion control.

M407: Display filament diameter

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No No No Yes No No Partial No No  ??? No

Example: M407

Displays measured filament diameter. In RepRapFirmware M407 does the same as M404.

M408: Report JSON-style response

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No No No No No No Partial No No  ??? No

Report a JSON-style response by specifying the desired type using the 'S' parameter. For some purposes it is necessary to pass the sequence number, which is why Duet-zpl and Duet-dc42 accept an additional 'P' parameter to specify it.

Example: M408 S0

The following response types are supported:

  • Type 0 is the M105 S2 response, which is like the new-style status response (for the old web interface) but some fields are omitted.
  • Type 1 is the M105 S3 response, which is like the M105 S2 response except that static values are also included.
  • Type 2 is the new-style standard JSON response, which is also reported to the new web interface (see Duet Web Control)
  • Type 3 is an extended version of type 2 which includes some additional parameters that aren't expected to change very frequently
  • Type 4 is an extended version of type 2 which may be used to poll for current printer stats
  • Type 5 reports the current machine configuration

For a more detailed comparison of type 2 - 5, see http://reprap.org/wiki/Proposed_RepRap_Duet_Status_Responses

Currently M408 is only supported by Duet-dc42 and Duet-zpl.

M420: Set RGB Colors as PWM

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No No No No No No  ??? No Yes  ??? No

Usage: M420 R<Red PWM (0-255)> E<Green PWM (0-255)> B<Blue PWM (0-255)>

Example: M420 R255 E255 B255

Set the color of your RGB LEDs that are connected to PWM-enabled pins. Note, the Green color is controlled by the E value instead of the G value due to the G code being a primary code that cannot be overridden.

M500: Store parameters in EEPROM

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No No Yes Yes Yes  ??? dc42, zpl No No  ??? No

Example: M500

Save current parameters to EEPROM. dc42 and zpl forks of RepRapFirmware allow "S1" to be passed, which forces parameters to be automatically saved to EEPROM when they are changed.

In Redeem any parameters set through G/M-codes which is different than what is read from the config files, are stored back to the local config. For instance setting stepper current and microstepping through M906 and M907 followed by M500 will update /etc/redeem/local.cfg.

M501: Read parameters from EEPROM

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No No Yes Yes Yes  ??? dc42, zpl No No  ??? No

Example: M501

Set the active parameters to those stored in the EEPROM. This is useful to revert parameters after experimenting with them.

M502: Revert to the default "factory settings."

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No No Yes Yes Yes  ???  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M502

This command resets all tunable parameters to their default values, as set in the firmware. This doesn't reset any parameters stored in the EEPROM, so it must be followed with M501 if you want to do that.

M503: Print settings

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No No Yes Yes  ???  ???  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M503

This command asks the firmware to reply with the current print settings stored in EEPROM. The reply output includes the G-Code commands to produce each setting. For example, the Steps Per Unit values are displayed as an M92 command.

M540: Enable/Disable "Stop SD Print on Endstop Hit"

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No No No Yes No No No No No  ??? No
Parameters
Snnn state, S1=enable, S0=disable
Example
M540 S1

M540: Set MAC address

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M540 P0xBE:0xEF:0xDE:0xAD:0xFE:0xED

Sets the MAC address of the RepRap. This should be done before any other network commands. The MAC address is six one-byte hexadecimal numbers separated by colons. The 0x prefix is optional in later firmware revisions.

M550: Set Name

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M550 PGodzilla

Sets the name of the RepRap to (in this case) Godzilla. The name can be any string of printable characters except ';', which still means start comment.

M551: Set Password

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M551 Pmy-very-secret-word

On machines that need a password to activate them, set that password. The code 'P' is not part of the password. Note that as this is sent in clear it does not (nor is it intended to) offer a very high level of security. But on machines that are (say) on a network, it prevents idle messing about by the unauthorised. The password can contain any printable characters except ';', which still means start comment.

M552: Set IP address

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M552 P192.168.1.14

Sets the IP address of the RepRap machine to (in this case) 192.168.1.14. A restart may be required before the new IP address is used. If no P field is specified, this echoes the existing IP address configured. If S0 is added thus: M552 S0 P192.168.1.14 networking is disabled.

M553: Set Netmask

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M553 P255.255.255.0

Sets the network mask of the RepRap machine to (in this case) 255.255.255.0. A restart may be required before the new network mask is used. If no P field is specified, this echoes the existing network mask configured.

M554: Set Gateway

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M554 P192.168.1.1

Sets the Gateway IP address of the RepRap machine to (in this case) 192.168.1.1. A restart may be required before the new gateway IP address is used. If no P field is specified, this echoes the existing Gateway IP address configured.

M555: Set compatibility

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M555 P1

For firmware that can do it, sets the firmware to a mode where its input and (especially) output behaves exactly like other established firmware. The value of the P argument is:

P value Firmware
0 Native (i.e. whatever the firmware actually is)
1 RepRap_Firmware
2 Marlin
3 Teacup
4 Sprinter
5 Repetier

M556: Axis compensation

Imaging denoting how to determine the S parameter for Gcode M556
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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M556 S100 X0.7 Y-0.2 Z0.6

Though with care and adjustment a RepRap can be set up with its axes at right-angles to each other within the accuracy of the machine, who wants to bother with care and adjustment when the problem can be solved by software? This tells software the tangents of the angles between the axes of the machine obtained by printing then measuring a test part. The S parameter (100 here) is the length of a triangle along each axis in mm. The X, Y and Z figures are the number of millimeters of the short side of the triangle that represents how out of true a pair of axes is. The X figure is the error between X and Y, the Y figure is the error between Y and Z, and the Z figure is the error between X and Z. Positive values indicate that the angle between the axis pair is obtuse, negative acute.

M557: Set Z probe point

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No No No No No Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M557 P1 X30 Y40.5

Set the points at which the bed will be probed to compensate for its plane being slightly out of horizontal. The P value is the index of the point (indices start at 0) and the X and Y values are the position to move extruder 0 to to probe the bed. An implementation should allow a minimum of three points (P0, P1 and P2). This just records the point coordinates; it does not actually do the probing. See G32.

M558: Set Z probe type

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M558 P0 X1 Y0 Z1

A Z probe may be a switch, an IR proximity sensor, or some other device. This selects which to use. P0 indicates that no Z probe is present. P1 gives an unmodulated IR probe, or any other probe type that emulates an unmodulated IR probe (probe output is an analog signal that rises with decreasing nozzle height above the bed). If there is a control signal to the probe, it is driven high when the probe type is P1. P2 specifies a modulated IR probe, where the modulation is commanded directly by the main board firmware using the control signal to the probe. P3 selects an alternative Z probe by driving the control signal to the probe low. P4 selects a switch (on the Duet, this must be connected to the E0 endstop pins).

The X, Y and Z parameters specify whether each axis uses the Z probe for homing or not. If the parameter is nonzero, the Z probe is used for homing that axis. if the parameter is zero, the endstop switch for that axis is used for homing instead. See also G31 and G32.

Duet-dc42 and zpl-dc42 firmware support an additional R parameter, which specifies the modulation channel. Channel 0 (the default) uses the standard Z probe modulation pin on the Duet 0.6. Channel 1 selects the alternative Z probe modulation pin on the Duet 0.7.

Duet-dc42 firmware versions 1.00e onwards supports additional parameter H. This specifies the dive height from which probing is done in response to a G30 command when the P parameter is present, or a G32 command.

M559: Upload configuration file

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M559

If the RepRap supports it, this uploads a file that is run on re-boot to configure the machine. This file usually is a special G Code file. After sending M559, the file should be sent, ending with an M29 (q.v.).

M560: Upload web page file

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M560

For RepRaps that have web support and that can be driven by a web browser, this uploads the file that is the control page for the RepRap. After sending M560 the file (usually an HTML file) should be sent, terminated by the string
<!-- **EoF** -->
. Clearly that string cannot exist in the body of the file, but can be put on the end to facilitate this process. This should not be too serious a restriction...


M561: Set Identity Transform

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No No No No No Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M561

This cancels any bed-plane fitting as the result of probing (or anything else) and returns the machine to moving in the user's coordinate system.

M562: Reset temperature fault

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M562 P2

Reset a temperature fault on heater/sensor 2. If the RepRap has switched off and locked a heater because it has detected a fault, this will reset the fault condition and allow you to use the heater again. Obviously to be used with caution. If the fault persists it will lock out again after you have issued this command. P0 is the bed; P1 the first extruder, and so on.

M563: Define or remove a tool

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M563 P3 D0:5:6 H1:3

Tools are usually (though not necessarily) extruders. The P field specifies the tool number. Tool numbers can have any positive integer value and 0. The D field specifies the drive(s) used by the tool - in this case drives 0, 5 and 6. Drive 0 is the first drive in the machine after the movement drives (usually X, Y and Z). If there is no D field the tool has no drives. The H field specifies the tool's heaters - in this case heaters 1 and 3. Heater 0 is usually the hot bed (if any) so the first extruder heater is usually 1. If there is no H field the tool has no heaters.

Tools are driven using multiple values in the E field of G1 commands, each controlling the corresponding drive in the D field above, as follows:

G1 X90.6 Y13.8 E2.24:2.24:15.89
G1 X70.6 E0:0:42.4

The first line moves straight to the point (90.6, 13.8) extruding a total of 2.24mm of filament from both drives 0 and 5 and 15.98mm of filament from drive 6.

The second line moves back 20mm in X extruding 42.4mm of filament from drive 6.

Normally an M563 command is immediately followed by a G10 command to set the tool's offsets and temperatures.

It is permissible for different tools to share some (or all) of their drives and heaters. So, for example, you can define two tools with identical hardware, but that just operate at different temperatures.

If you use the M563 command with a P value for a tool that has already been defined, that tool is redefined using the new values you provide.

Duet-dc42 firmware supports an additional form of the M563 command. The command:

M563 S1

means add 1 (the value of the S parameter) to all tool numbers found in the remainder of the current input stream (e.g. the current file if the command is read from a file on the SD card), or until a new M563 command of this form is executed. The purpose of this is to provide compatibility between the Duet firmware, in which tool numbers typically start at 1, and programs such as slic3r that assume tools are numbered from zero.

Duet-zpl firmware allows the deletion of existing tools if M563 is called in this way:

M563 P1 D-1 H-1

M564: Limit axes

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M564 S0

Allow moves outside the print volume, or not. If the S parameter is 0, then you can send G codes to drive the RepRap outside its normal working volume, and it will attempt to do so. User beware... If you set the S parameter to 1 then the RepRap will not think outside the box. The default behaviour is S = 1.

M565: Set Z probe offset

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No No No No No Yes No: See G31 No No  ??? No

Example: M565 X3 Y4.5 Z-2.37

Set the offset from the extruder tip to the probe position. The X, Y and Z values are the delta between the extruder and the actual trigger position of the probe. If the probe trigger point is below the extruder (typical) the Z offset will be negative. This just records the point offset; it does not actually do the probing. See G32.

M566: Set allowable instantaneous speed change

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M566 X20 Y20 Z2 E10

Work around an algorithm limitation of some firmwares, which can't calculate step timings for a standing start. Teacup Firmware and Smoothieware don't have this limitation, so M566 is obsolete there.

M566 sets the speeds in mm/minute that axes can do from a standing start. If an accelerating algorithm starts a move with a zero velocity on other firmwares and then accelerates from that, it can give problems when the zero initial velocity is used to calculate a timestep between stepper pulses at the beginning: the timestep ends up being infinite... So these systems have initial small velocities to start at. This sets them.

The dc42 variant of RepRapFirmware doesn't have the limitation, but instead it uses this parameter to determine the maximum allowable speed change of each motor when cornering.

M567: Set tool mix ratios

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M567 P2 E0.1:0.2:0.1:0.6

The example sets the mix ratio for tool 2 (the P value). When mixing is then turned on (see M568), only single E values need to be sent on a G1 command (any extra E values will be ignored, but are not illegal):

G1 X20 E1.3

This will move to X=20 extruding a total length of filament of 1.3mm. The first drive of tool 2 will extrude 0.1*1.3mm, the second 0.2*1.3mm and so on. The ratios don't have to add up to 1.0 - the calculation done is as just described. But it is best if they do.

See also M568.

M568: Turn off/on tool mix ratios

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M568 P2 S0

Turn on/off automatic mix ratios for tool 2. If the S parameter is 0 mixing is turned off; if it is non-zero it is turned on.

After turning off command G1 instructions must send as many E values as the tool has drives:

G1 X20 E0.2:0.4:0.166:0.3

The off state is the default.

M569: Set axis direction values

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M569 P0 S1

Set the control value for the drive specified by P that sends it forwards to the given value in the S field. After sending the example, sending a 1 to X (drive 0) will make it go forwards, sending a 0 will make it go backwards. Obviously to be used with extreme caution...

M570: Set heater timeout

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M570 S120

After a heater has been switched on, wait 120 seconds for it to get close to the set temperature. If it takes longer than this, flag a heater fault.

M571: Set output on extrude

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M571 S0.5

This turns an output on whenever extrusion is being done, and turns it off when the extrusion is finished. The output could control a fan or a stirrer or anything else that needs to work just when extrusion is happening. The S parameter sets the value of the PWM to the output. 0.0 is off; 1.0 is fully on.

M572: Set or report extruder elasticity compensation

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M572 P3 S0.06

This sets the compensation time in seconds (S parameter) for Bowden extruder elasticity for the specified drive (P parameter). Supported by Duet-dc42 firmware. It has an effect similar to the EXTRUDER_ADVANCE_K factor in Marlin firmware. Normally, compensation should be applied to extruder drives only (drives 3 and higher).

M573: Report heater PWM

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M573 P1

This gives a running average (usually taken over about five seconds) of the PWM to the heater specified by the P field. If you know the voltage of the supply and the resistance of the heater this allows you to work out the power going to the heater.

M574: Set endstop configuration

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M574 X1 Y2 Z0 S1

This defines the type of endstop switch or opto sensor that the printer has for each axis: 0 = none, 1 = low end, 2 = high end. The optional S parameter defines whether the endstop input is active high (S1, the default) or low (S0). Intended for use with boards that provide a single endstop input for each axis that may be used for either a high or a low end endstop, such as the Duet. Supported by Duet-dc42 firmware. On delta printers, the XYZ parameters refer to the towers and the endstops should normally all be high end.

M575: Set serial comms parameters

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M575 P1 B57600 S1

This sets the communications parameters of the serial comms channel specified by the P parameter. P0 specifies the main serial interface (typically a USB port, or serial-over-USB), while P1 specifies an auxiliary serial port (for example, the port used to connect a PanelDue). The B parameter is the required baud rate (this parameter is typically ignored if the port is a true USB port). The S parameter is a bitmap of features. The lowest bit, if set, specifies that only commands that include a valid checksum should be accepted from this comms channel.

M576: Set axis/extruder drive mapping

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No No No No No No not yet No No No No

Example: M576 X0 Y1 Z2:3 A4 E5:6:7

This maps each letter to the specified drive number(s). In this example the Z axis configuration consists of two motors that need to be controlled simultaneously. An extra axis 'A' is also defined for cusstom purposes (rotary nozzle, cutter tool etc.) while the remaining axes are mapped to extruder drives.

M577: Wait until endstop is triggered

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No No No No No No not yet No No No No

Example: M577 E0 S1

Wait for an endstop switch to be pressed. The example above will wait until the first extruder endstop is triggered.

The following trigger types may be used using the 'S' parameter:

0: Endstop not hit 1: Low endstop hit 2: High endstop hit 3: Near endstop (only Z probe)

M578: Fire inkjet bits

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No No No No No No Yes No No No No

Example: M578 P3 S5

This fires inkjet head 3 (the P field) using the bit pattern specified by the S field. The example shown would fire bits 101. If the P parameter is ommitted inkjet 0 is assumed.

This is a version of the M700 command used by the Inkshield, but unfortunately M700 is already taken so cannot be used for that in the standard.

M600: Set line cross section

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No No No No  ???  ???  ??? No Yes  ??? No

Example: M600 P0.061

Sets the cross section for a line to extrude in velocity extrusion mode. When the extruder is enabled and movement is executed the amount of extruded filament will be calculated to match the specified line cross section.

M600: Filament change pause

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No No No Yes  ???  ???  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M600

Pause for filament change X[pos] Y[pos] Z[relative lift] E[initial retract] L[later retract distance for removal].

M605: Set dual x-carriage movement mode

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No No No Yes  ??? No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M605 S1

Sets the dual x-carriage movement mode: S<mode> [ X<duplication x-offset> R<duplication temp offset> ].

M605 S0: Full control mode. The slicer has full control over x-carriage movement M605 S1: Auto-park mode. The inactive head will auto park/unpark without slicer involvement M605 S2 [Xnnn] [Rmmm]: Duplication mode. The second extruder will duplicate the first with nnn millimeters x-offset and an optional differential hotend temperature of mmm degrees. E.g., with "M605 S2 X100 R2" the second extruder will duplicate the first with a spacing of 100mm in the x direction and 2 degrees hotter.

M665: Set delta configuration

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No No No Yes No Yes dc42 No No  ??? No

Example: M665 L250 R160 S200 (Marlin), M665 L250 R160 B80 H200 (Duet-dc42)

Set the delta calibration variables. L = diagonal rod length, R = delta radius, S = segments per second, B = safe printing radius, H = nozzle height above bed when homed after allowing for the endstop corrections.

I don't think it's a good idea to have two different implementations for the same G-code, and I also question the practical value of specifying the print bed radius when defining a delta configuration, since many delta printers use a square or rectangular print bed. So perhaps we should stick to the Marlin-defined command as the definition for this command, and use a different command or set of commands to define print bed shape and size. --AndrewBCN (talk) 23:10, 31 January 2015 (PST)
The implementations are not different, they have the same L and R parameters, but each has additional parameters that are not relevant to the other implementation. I'm not against defining a new Gcode to define bed size and shape; however, you can already define the limits of a rectangular print area using M208. Even when a delta printer has a square bed, the printable area is not square. It is usually taken to be circular, although it is in reality more complicated. My purpose in adding the B parameter was to make it easy to define a radius outside which movement will not normally be attempted. I have changed "bed radius" to "safe printing radius" in the text to help clarify this. --dc42

M666: Set delta endstop adjustment

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No No No Yes No Yes dc42 No No  ??? No

Example M666 X-0.1 Y+0.2 Z0

Sets delta endstops adjustments.

M667: Select CoreXY mode

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No No No No No No dc42 No No  ??? No

M667 S0 selects Cartesian mode (unless the printer is configured as a delta using the M665 command). Forward motion of the X motor moves the head in the +X direction. Similarly for the Y motor and Y axis, and the Z motor and Z axis. This is the default state of the firmware on power up.

M667 S1 selects CoreXY mode. Forward movement of the X motor moves the head in the +X and +Y directions. Forward movement of the Y motor moves the head in the -X and +Y directions.

M667 S2 selects CoreXZ mode. Forward movement of the X motor moves the head in the +X and +Z directions. Forward movement of the Z motor moves the head in the -X and +Z directions.

M667 S3 selects CoreYZ mode. Forward movement of the Y motor moves the head in the +Y and +Z directions. Forward movement of the Z motor moves the head in the -Y and +Z directions.

M700: Level plate

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No No No bq No No  ??? No No  ??? No

1 only in bq-Marlin Firmware

Example: M700

Script to adjust the plate level.

M701: Load filament

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No No No bq No No  ??? No No  ??? No

1 only in bq-Marlin Firmware

Example: M701

M702: Unload filament

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No No No bq No No  ??? No No  ??? No

1 only in bq-Marlin Firmware

Example: M702

M906: Set motor currents

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No No No No No M907? Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M906 X300 Y500 Z200 E350

Sets the currents to send to the stepper motors for each axis. The values are in milliamps.

The dc42 fork of RepRapFirmware supports an additional I parameter. This is the percentage of normal that the motor currents should be reduced to when the printer becomes idle but the motors have not been switched off.

M907: Set digital trimpot motor

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No No No Yes No  ???  ??? No No  ??? No

Set digital trimpot motor current using axis codes (X, Y, Z, E, B, S).

M908: Control digital trimpot directly

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No No No Yes Yes: 0.92 No  ??? No No  ??? No

M908 P<pin> S<current>

M909: Set microstepping

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No No No No No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M909 X3 Y5 Z2 E3

Set the microstepping value for each of the steppers. In Redeem this is implemented as 2^value, so
M909 X2 sets microstepping on X-axis to 2^2 = 4,
M909 Y3 sets microstepping on Y-axis to 2^3 = 8 etc.

M928: Start SD logging

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No No No Yes No No  ??? No No  ??? No

Example: M928 filename.g

Ended by M29.

M998: Request resend of line

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No No No No No No Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M998 P34

Request a resend of line 34. In some implementations the input-handling code overwrites the incoming G Code with this when it detects, for example, a checksum error. Then it leaves it up to the GCode interpreter actually to request the resend.

M999: Restart after being stopped by error

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No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No  ??? No

Example: M999

The dc42 fork of RepRapFirmware not only resets the board but also puts the board into firmware upload mode if parameter PERASE is present.

Other commands

G: List all G-codes

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? No

Example: G

This lists all implemeted G-codes in the firmware with description and sends it back to the host.
(Note: this has been implemented in Redeem, and so is only a proposition)

M: List all M-codes

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 ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???  ??? No

Example: M

This lists all implemeted M-codes in the firmware with description and sends it back to the host.
(Note: this has been implemented in Redeem, and so is only a proposition)

T: Select Tool

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Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes  ???  ???  ??? No

Example: T1

Select tool (or in older implementations extruder) number 1 to build with.

The sequence followed is:

  1. Set the current tool to its standby temperatures specified by G10 (see above),
  2. Set the new tool to its operating temperatures specified by G10 and wait for all temperatures to stabilise,
  3. Apply any X, Y, Z offset for the new tool specified by G10,
  4. Use the new tool.

Selecting a non-existent tool (100, say) just does Step 1. above. That is to say it leaves all tools in their standby state. You can, of course, use the G10 command beforehand to set that standby temperature to anything you like.

Note that you may wish to move to a parking position before executing a T command in order to allow the new extruder to reach temperature while not in contact with the print. It is acceptable for the firmware to apply a small offset [by convention (-1mm x tool-number) in Y] to the current position when the above sequence is entered to allow temperature changes to take effect just away from the parking position. Any such offset must, of course, be undone when the procedure finishes.

If the Z value changes in the offsets and the tool moves up, then the Z move is made before the X and Y moves. If Z moves down, X and Y are done first.

Some implementations (e.g. RepRapFirmware) allow you to specify tool-change G Code macros. There are normally three specified (any of which can contain no commands if desired) that execute in this order:

  1. Actions to do with the old tool before it is released - macro name: tfreeN.g where N is the tool number;
  2. (Old tool is released);
  3. Actions to do with the new tool before it is selected - macro name: tpreN.g where N is the tool number;
  4. (New tool is selected); and
  5. Actions to do with the new tool after it is selected - macro name: tpostN.g where N is the tool number.

With such implementations there is no wait for temperature stabilisation. That can be achieved by an M116 in any of the macros, of course.

After a reset tools will not start heating until they are selected. You can either put them all at their standby temperature by selecting them in turn, or leave them off so they only come on if/when you first use them. The M0, M1 and M112 commands turn them all off. You can, of course, turn them all off with the M1 command, then turn some back on again. Don't forget also to turn on the heated bed (if any) if you use that trick.

Tool numbering may start at 0 or 1, depending on the implementation. Some implementations (those that use the M563 command to define tools) allow the user to specify tool numbers, so with them you can have tools 17, 99 and 203 if you want. Negative numbers are not allowed.

Proposed EEPROM configuration codes

BRIEFLY: each RepRap has a number of physical parameters that should be persistent, but easily configurable, such as extrusion steps/mm, various max values, etc. Those parameters are currently hardcoded in the firmware, so that a user has to modify, recompile and re-flash the firmware for any adjustments. These configs can be stored in MCU's EEPROM and modified via some M-codes. Please see the detailed proposal at M-codes for EEPROM config. (This is proposed by --AlexRa on 11-March-2011. There is currently no working implementation of the proposed commands).

Marlin uses codes M500-M503 to manipulate EEPROM values.

Sprinter has implemented the following commands to manipulate EEPROM Commit message.

Teacup uses codes M130-M136 to set, read, and save some parameters.

Replies from the RepRap machine to the host computer

All communication is in printable ASCII characters. Messages sent back to the host computer are terminated by a newline and look like this:

xx [line number to resend] [T:93.2 B:22.9] [C: X:9.2 Y:125.4 Z:3.7 E:1902.5] [Some debugging or other information may be here]

xx can be one of:

ok

rs

!!

ok means that no error has been detected.

rs means resend, and is followed by the line number to resend.

!! means that a hardware fault has been detected. The RepRap machine will shut down immediately after it has sent this message.

The T: and B: values are the temperature of the currently-selected extruder and the bed respectively, and are only sent in response to M105. If such temperatures don't exist (for example for an extruder that works at room temperature and doesn't have a sensor) then a value below absolute zero (-273oC) is returned.

C: means that coordinates follow. Those are the X: Y: etc values. These are only sent in response to M114 and M117.

The RepRap machine may also send lines that look like this:

// This is some debugging or other information on a line on its own. It may be sent at any time.

Such lines will always be preceded by //.

On the latest version of Pronterface and soon Octoprint a special comment of the form:

// action:command

is allowed to be sent from the firmware, the command can currently be pause, resume or disconnect which will execute those commands on the host. As this is also a comment other hosts will just ignore these commands.

The most common response is simply:

ok

When the machine boots up it sends the string

start

once to the host before sending anything else. This should not be replaced or augmented by version numbers and the like. M115 (see above) requests those.

All this means that every line sent by RepRap to the host computer except the start line has a two-character prefix (one of ok, rs, !! or //). The machine should never send a line without such a prefix.


Exceptions:

1. Marlin 1.0.0 Gen6 Firmware does not follow the two character rule. 'rs' is actually 'Resend' and '!!' is 'Error'. Example Lines:

  • Error: Line Number is not current line + 1. Last Line: 7
  • Resend: 8
  • Writing to File: print.gco
  • Done saving file.
  • File opened:print.gco Size:22992
  • File selected

When in the code base did this change take place and what other firmwares are affected?

2. The dc42 fork of RepRapFirmware responds to some commands with a reply string in JSON format, terminated by a newline. This allows later firmware revisions to include additional information without confusing clients (e.g. PanelDue) that do not expect it, and to make responses self-describing so that the client will not be confused if responses are delayed or lost. The commands affected are:

  • M105 S2
  • M105 S3
  • M20 S2
  • M36
  • M408

Proposal for sending multiple lines of G-code

So far, this is a proposal, open for discussion.

Problem to solve

When using Marlin firmware or emulating Marlin, each line of G-code sent from the host to the controller is answered with an ok before the next line can be sent without locking communications up. This slows down communication and limits the number of commands that can be sent per second to the printer controller, as the USB stack on the host and the serial interface driver on the Arduino add their own latencies (up to 10 milliseconds). This is not a problem for other controller electronics using native USB such as the Duet, because the standard serial-over-USB drivers provide flow control, so the host software can be configured so as not to wait for the ok.

For more details on this proposal, some suggested solutions and comments, please see GCODE_buffer_multiline_proposal

Alternatives to G-code

Main article: Firmware/Alternative#alternatives to G-code

Several people have suggested using STEP-NC or some other control language; or perhaps designing a completely new control language.