Z motors humm but wont move.
January 10, 2016 12:34PM
Hey guys,

So I just built a prusa i3 and I have the x axis and y axis working. The problem is my Z axis. When I tell it to move it humms and jerks a little bit but won't actually move. The threaded rods are easy to move and are level. The wiring is definitely correct. The driver is set to the highest output. I even took a stepper motor from my other printer that I know for sure works and it was acting the same way when I plugged it in. I am using marlin and a arduino mega2560 with a ramps 1.4. Please help.

Thank You,

Jonathan Broadfoot
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 11, 2016 03:52AM
You often have to reduce z-speed, when using pre-flashed firmware.
Use pronterface to send "M92 Z3" to your printer and see if it helps. Some people use 2 or 4mm/sec as max. speed.
Try out what works best for you, then send "M500" to store this value in EEprom.
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 11, 2016 05:39PM
Hey Olaf,

When I typed in M92 Z3 that worked to get it moving, but now when I try to move it up 10mm it only slightly turns. When I try to move it up 1mm it turn a tiny bit, and when I try to move it up .1mm it does not move at all. It is getting so close to working but just not there yet. Any suggestions on how to get it to move the correct distances?
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 11, 2016 07:39PM
o_lampe - doesn't an M92 set steps_per_unit and not feedrate?
M203 is feedrate in mm/min
so M203 Z120 should work
and M92 Z4000 (providing it has m5 threaded)

Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 12, 2016 03:19AM
Sorry, my bad... sad smiley
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 12, 2016 11:50AM
Sorry, my bad... sad smiley

No, it's all good - I learnt more M commands in the process
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 12, 2016 11:56AM
Jonathan try this:

power the printer on, connect your PC/Mac to it with whatever software you use.

give the printer these commands:
M203 Z120
M92 Z4000

This assumes you have m5 threaded rods for your Z axis.
If this works then you need to change the Z axis feedrate in Marlin

Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 13, 2016 10:06AM
Hey Steve,

So when I type in M203 Z120 and M92 Z4000 nothing happens.Any ideas?
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 13, 2016 11:59AM
Hmm, you get no movement of the z after that when you try move it?
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 13, 2016 05:20PM
Well i get movement but it doesn't seem to make a difference. Also the Z axis will not home I dont know if that is part of the problem or a whole new one, but it doesn't move wen I try to home it.
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 14, 2016 12:14PM
post your configuration.h file so I can take a look
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 14, 2016 01:30PM

// This configurtion file contains the basic settings.
// Advanced settings can be found in Configuration_adv.h
// BASIC SETTINGS: select your board type, temperature sensor type, axis scaling, and endstop configuration

//User specified version info of this build to display in [Pronterface, etc] terminal window during startup.
//Implementation of an idea by Prof Braino to inform user that any changes made
//to this build by the user have been successfully uploaded into firmware.
#define STRING_VERSION_CONFIG_H __DATE__ " " __TIME__ // build date and time
#define STRING_CONFIG_H_AUTHOR "(none, default config)" //Who made the changes.

// SERIAL_PORT selects which serial port should be used for communication with the host.
// This allows the connection of wireless adapters (for instance) to non-default port pins.
// Serial port 0 is still used by the Arduino bootloader regardless of this setting.
#define SERIAL_PORT 0

// This determines the communication speed of the printer
#define BAUDRATE 250000
//#define BAUDRATE 115200

//// The following define selects which electronics board you have. Please choose the one that matches your setup
// 10 = Gen7 custom (Alfons3 Version) "https://github.com/Alfons3/Generation_7_Electronics"
// 11 = Gen7 v1.1, v1.2 = 11
// 12 = Gen7 v1.3
// 13 = Gen7 v1.4
// 3 = MEGA/RAMPS up to 1.2 = 3
// 33 = RAMPS 1.3 (Power outputs: Extruder, Bed, Fan)
// 34 = RAMPS 1.3 (Power outputs: Extruder0, Extruder1, Bed)
// 4 = Duemilanove w/ ATMega328P pin assignment
// 5 = Gen6
// 51 = Gen6 deluxe
// 6 = Sanguinololu < 1.2
// 62 = Sanguinololu 1.2 and above
// 63 = Melzi
// 7 = Ultimaker
// 71 = Ultimaker (Older electronics. Pre 1.5.4. This is rare)
// 8 = Teensylu
// 81 = Printrboard (AT90USB1286)
// 82 = Brainwave (AT90USB646)
// 9 = Gen3+
// 70 = Megatronics
// 90 = Alpha OMCA board
// 91 = Final OMCA board
// 301 = Rambo

#define MOTHERBOARD 34

//=============================Thermal Settings ============================
//--NORMAL IS 4.7kohm PULLUP!-- 1kohm pullup can be used on hotend sensor, using correct resistor and table
//// Temperature sensor settings:
// -2 is thermocouple with MAX6675 (only for sensor 0)
// -1 is thermocouple with AD595
// 0 is not used
// 1 is 100k thermistor - best choice for EPCOS 100k (4.7k pullup)
// 2 is 200k thermistor - ATC Semitec 204GT-2 (4.7k pullup)
// 3 is mendel-parts thermistor (4.7k pullup)
// 4 is 10k thermistor !! do not use it for a hotend. It gives bad resolution at high temp. !!
// 5 is 100K thermistor - ATC Semitec 104GT-2 (Used in ParCan) (4.7k pullup)
// 6 is 100k EPCOS - Not as accurate as table 1 (created using a fluke thermocouple) (4.7k pullup)
// 7 is 100k Honeywell thermistor 135-104LAG-J01 (4.7k pullup)
// 1k ohm pullup tables - This is not normal, you would have to have changed out your 4.7k for 1k
// (but gives greater accuracy and more stable PID)
// 51 is 100k thermistor - EPCOS (1k pullup)
// 52 is 200k thermistor - ATC Semitec 204GT-2 (1k pullup)
// 55 is 100k thermistor - ATC Semitec 104GT-2 (Used in ParCan) (1k pullup)

#define TEMP_SENSOR_0 5
#define TEMP_SENSOR_1 5
#define TEMP_SENSOR_2 0

// Actual temperature must be close to target for this long before M109 returns success
#define TEMP_RESIDENCY_TIME 10 // (seconds)
#define TEMP_HYSTERESIS 3 // (degC) range of +/- temperatures considered "close" to the target one
#define TEMP_WINDOW 1 // (degC) Window around target to start the recidency timer x degC early.

// The minimal temperature defines the temperature below which the heater will not be enabled It is used
// to check that the wiring to the thermistor is not broken.
// Otherwise this would lead to the heater being powered on all the time.
#define HEATER_0_MINTEMP 5
#define HEATER_1_MINTEMP 5
#define HEATER_2_MINTEMP 5
#define BED_MINTEMP 5

// When temperature exceeds max temp, your heater will be switched off.
// This feature exists to protect your hotend from overheating accidentally, but *NOT* from thermistor short/failure!
// You should use MINTEMP for thermistor short/failure protection.
#define HEATER_0_MAXTEMP 275
#define HEATER_1_MAXTEMP 275
#define HEATER_2_MAXTEMP 275
#define BED_MAXTEMP 120

// If your bed has low resistance e.g. .6 ohm and throws the fuse you can duty cycle it to reduce the
// average current. The value should be an integer and the heat bed will be turned on for 1 interval of

// PID settings:
// Comment the following line to disable PID and enable bang-bang.
#define PIDTEMP
#define PID_MAX 255 // limits current to nozzle; 255=full current
#ifdef PIDTEMP
//#define PID_DEBUG // Sends debug data to the serial port.
//#define PID_OPENLOOP 1 // Puts PID in open loop. M104/M140 sets the output power from 0 to PID_MAX
#define PID_FUNCTIONAL_RANGE 10 // If the temperature difference between the target temperature and the actual temperature
// is more then PID_FUNCTIONAL_RANGE then the PID will be shut off and the heater will be set to min/max.
#define PID_INTEGRAL_DRIVE_MAX 255 //limit for the integral term
#define K1 0.95 //smoothing factor withing the PID
#define PID_dT ((16.0 * 8.0)/(F_CPU / 64.0 / 256.0)) //sampling period of the temperature routine

// If you are using a preconfigured hotend then you can use one of the value sets by uncommenting it
// Ultimaker
#define DEFAULT_Kp 22.2
#define DEFAULT_Ki 1.08
#define DEFAULT_Kd 114

// Makergear
// #define DEFAULT_Kp 7.0
// #define DEFAULT_Ki 0.1
// #define DEFAULT_Kd 12

// Mendel Parts V9 on 12V
// #define DEFAULT_Kp 63.0
// #define DEFAULT_Ki 2.25
// #define DEFAULT_Kd 440
#endif // PIDTEMP

// Bed Temperature Control
// Select PID or bang-bang with PIDTEMPBED. If bang-bang, BED_LIMIT_SWITCHING will enable hysteresis
// uncomment this to enable PID on the bed. It uses the same ferquency PWM as the extruder.
// If your PID_dT above is the default, and correct for your hardware/configuration, that means 7.689Hz,
// which is fine for driving a square wave into a resistive load and does not significantly impact you FET heating.
// This also works fine on a Fotek SSR-10DA Solid State Relay into a 250W heater.
// If your configuration is significantly different than this and you don't understand the issues involved, you proabaly
// shouldn't use bed PID until someone else verifies your hardware works.
// If this is enabled, find your own PID constants below.
//#define PIDTEMPBED

// This sets the max power delived to the bed, and replaces the HEATER_BED_DUTY_CYCLE_DIVIDER option.
// all forms of bed control obey this (PID, bang-bang, bang-bang with hysteresis)
// setting this to anything other than 255 enables a form of PWM to the bed just like HEATER_BED_DUTY_CYCLE_DIVIDER did,
// so you shouldn't use it unless you are OK with PWM on your bed. (see the comment on enabling PIDTEMPBED)
#define MAX_BED_POWER 255 // limits duty cycle to bed; 255=full current

//120v 250W silicone heater into 4mm borosilicate (MendelMax 1.5+)
//from FOPDT model - kp=.39 Tp=405 Tdead=66, Tc set to 79.2, argressive factor of .15 (vs .1, 1, 10)
#define DEFAULT_bedKp 10.00
#define DEFAULT_bedKi .023
#define DEFAULT_bedKd 305.4

//120v 250W silicone heater into 4mm borosilicate (MendelMax 1.5+)
//from pidautotune
// #define DEFAULT_bedKp 97.1
// #define DEFAULT_bedKi 1.41
// #define DEFAULT_bedKd 1675.16

// FIND YOUR OWN: "M303 E-1 C8 S90" to run autotune on the bed at 90 degreesC for 8 cycles.
#endif // PIDTEMPBED

//this prevents dangerous Extruder moves, i.e. if the temperature is under the limit
//can be software-disabled for whatever purposes by
//if PREVENT_DANGEROUS_EXTRUDE is on, you can still disable (uncomment) very long bits of extrusion separately.

#define EXTRUDE_MAXLENGTH (X_MAX_LENGTH+Y_MAX_LENGTH) //prevent extrusion of very large distances.

//=============================Mechanical Settings===========================

// Uncomment the following line to enable CoreXY kinematics
// #define COREXY

// corse Endstop Settings
#define ENDSTOPPULLUPS // Comment this out (using // at the start of the line) to disable the endstop pullup resistors

// fine Enstop settings: Individual Pullups. will be ignord if ENDSTOPPULLUPS is defined


// The pullups are needed if you directly connect a mechanical endswitch between the signal and ground pins.
const bool X_ENDSTOPS_INVERTING = false; // set to true to invert the logic of the endstops.
const bool Y_ENDSTOPS_INVERTING = false; // set to true to invert the logic of the endstops.
const bool Z_ENDSTOPS_INVERTING = false; // set to true to invert the logic of the endstops.

// For Inverting Stepper Enable Pins (Active Low) use 0, Non Inverting (Active High) use 1
#define X_ENABLE_ON 0
#define Y_ENABLE_ON 0
#define Z_ENABLE_ON 0
#define E_ENABLE_ON 0 // For all extruders

// Disables axis when it's not being used.
#define DISABLE_X false
#define DISABLE_Y false
#define DISABLE_Z true
#define DISABLE_E false // For all extruders

#define INVERT_X_DIR true // for Mendel set to false, for Orca set to true
#define INVERT_Y_DIR false // for Mendel set to true, for Orca set to false
#define INVERT_Z_DIR true // for Mendel set to false, for Orca set to true
#define INVERT_E0_DIR false // for direct drive extruder v9 set to true, for geared extruder set to false
#define INVERT_E1_DIR false // for direct drive extruder v9 set to true, for geared extruder set to false
#define INVERT_E2_DIR false // for direct drive extruder v9 set to true, for geared extruder set to false

// Sets direction of endstops when homing; 1=MAX, -1=MIN
#define X_HOME_DIR -1
#define Y_HOME_DIR -1
#define Z_HOME_DIR 1

#define min_software_endstops true //If true, axis won't move to coordinates less than HOME_POS.
#define max_software_endstops true //If true, axis won't move to coordinates greater than the defined lengths below.
// Travel limits after homing
#define X_MAX_POS 200
#define X_MIN_POS 0
#define Y_MAX_POS 200
#define Y_MIN_POS 0
#define Z_MAX_POS 280
#define Z_MIN_POS 0


// The position of the homing switches
//#define MANUAL_HOME_POSITIONS // If defined, MANUAL_*_HOME_POS below will be used
//#define BED_CENTER_AT_0_0 // If defined, the center of the bed is at (X=0, Y=0)

//Manual homing switch locations:

#define NUM_AXIS 4 // The axis order in all axis related arrays is X, Y, Z, E
#define HOMING_FEEDRATE {500, 500, 2, 0} // set the homing speeds (mm/min)

// default settings

#define DEFAULT_AXIS_STEPS_PER_UNIT {80,80,4000,744} // default steps per unit for ultimaker
#define DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE {500,500,5,25} // (mm/sec)
#define DEFAULT_MAX_ACCELERATION {2000,2000,20,300} // X, Y, Z, E maximum start speed for accelerated moves. E default values are good for skeinforge 40+, for older versions raise them a lot.

#define DEFAULT_ACCELERATION 1000 // X, Y, Z and E max acceleration in mm/s^2 for printing moves
#define DEFAULT_RETRACT_ACCELERATION 300 // X, Y, Z and E max acceleration in mm/s^2 for r retracts

#define DEFAULT_XYJERK 20.0 // (mm/sec)
#define DEFAULT_ZJERK 0.4 // (mm/sec)
#define DEFAULT_EJERK 5.0 // (mm/sec)

//=============================Additional Features===========================

// the microcontroller can store settings in the EEPROM, e.g. max velocity...
// M500 - stores paramters in EEPROM
// M501 - reads parameters from EEPROM (if you need reset them after you changed them temporarily).
// M502 - reverts to the default "factory settings". You still need to store them in EEPROM afterwards if you want to.
//define this to enable eeprom support
//to disable EEPROM Serial responses and decrease program space by ~1700 byte: comment this out:
// please keep turned on if you can.

//LCD and SD support
//#define ULTRA_LCD //general lcd support, also 16x2
//#define SDSUPPORT // Enable SD Card Support in Hardware Console

//#define ULTIMAKERCONTROLLER //as available from the ultimaker online store.
#define ULTIPANEL //the ultipanel as on thingiverse

// The RepRapDiscount Smart Controller
// [reprap.org]

//automatic expansion
#define NEWPANEL

// Preheat Constants
#define PLA_PREHEAT_FAN_SPEED 255 // Insert Value between 0 and 255

#define ABS_PREHEAT_FAN_SPEED 255 // Insert Value between 0 and 255

#define NEWPANEL //enable this if you have a click-encoder panel
#define ULTRA_LCD
#define LCD_WIDTH 20
#define LCD_HEIGHT 4

#else //no panel but just lcd
#ifdef ULTRA_LCD
#define LCD_WIDTH 16
#define LCD_HEIGHT 2

// Increase the FAN pwm frequency. Removes the PWM noise but increases heating in the FET/Arduino
//#define FAST_PWM_FAN

// M240 Triggers a camera by emulating a Canon RC-1 Remote
// Data from: [www.doc-diy.net]
// #define PHOTOGRAPH_PIN 23

// SF send wrong arc g-codes when using Arc Point as fillet procedure
//#define SF_ARC_FIX

#include "Configuration_adv.h"
#include "thermistortables.h"

Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 14, 2016 02:20PM
#define DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE {500,500,5,25} // (mm/sec)

needs to be:

#define DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE {500,500,2,25} // (mm/sec)

Also in my configuration.h the HOMING_FEEDRATE like is:

#define HOMING_FEEDRATE {50*60, 50*60, 4*60, 0} // set the homing speeds (mm/min)

Maybe you changed the HOMING_FEEDRATE rather than the DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE?

Also I am guessing you have a Foger Tech 2020? (like a Prusa i2 with Z motors on top)
You Z-axis endstop is set to a MAX endstop:
#define Z_HOME_DIR 1
A normal i3 with the Z motors mounted on the bottom and z endstop on the bottom the Z endstop is a MIN endstop:
#define Z_HOME_DIR -1

Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 14, 2016 03:25PM
Hey Steve,

I built the prusa I3 rework so the motors are mounted on the bottom. Also I have two extruders, so that is going to be the next part I have to figure out how to set up once I can get the Z axis working properly. I tried setting my max feed rate to 2 and that did not help as well.
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 14, 2016 06:40PM
I'm out of ideas. If you've check the motor wiring pairs, the stepper voltage and made the changes to your configuration.h I'm not sure what else.
If you have a hackspace/makerspace close to you take it there and see if anyone can help
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 15, 2016 04:12PM
Im just going to throw out some ideas, i'm sure that you will have already tried some of these, but hopefully ill spark an idea.

1) have you installed the jumpers under the stepper drivers? this is commonly forgotten
2) double double check check your wiring pairs on the stepper motors, the pairs should be next to each other in the plug.
3) if you have wired your motors in series, then try it in parallel, or visa versa
4) verify that the motors work individually, plug each one into a plug on your ramps that you know works (i like to use the Y axis slot). Don't use the extruder slot because then you have to deal with the extruder getting up to temp in order to test.
5) switch around stepper drivers, maybe one is broken.
6) start changing settings, try a really low steps per mm, then try a really high one. see how it effects the movement.
7) start checking your assumptions, and figure out what you know for sure works
Re: Z motors humm but wont move.
January 15, 2016 08:26PM
Hello, I will preface this by saying that I'm just getting my first printer working, so I am definitely no expert. But I was having this exact same problem earlier this week, and I just got it fixed.

It turns out that my stepper driver was set to a much too high voltage (I forgot to change it from the factory default). This caused my z-axis motors to pull too much current and shut off, then they would just hum and not do anything. I tuned my stepper driver to 70% of the max current of the motor (here is an example page for my stepper drivers: http://reprap.org/wiki/Pololu_stepper_driver_board), and my z-axis is now running like a dream. Hope this helps.

-Adam Coffin
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