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Blog #13 - April 23, 2013

Name one or more topics related to 3D printing which you wish we discussed in greater detail during the course. How might we evolve the course in the future?

During the semester, I have heard a lot about tuning the potentiometer to adjust the current. I am not sure how that works, so a discussion on the electronic board and how the components work would be nice. It will help in determining what is wrong with our printers when they fail.

Though I had fun building the printers, I think we need a better understanding on the theories on how the printers work. A few lectures (~3) would be sufficient enough.

Blog #12 - April 23, 2013

Our next big projects on the horizon are the dual extruder and the filament recycler. If you had to focus on one of those two projects, which one would you push and why? What are the relative merits and motivations behind choosing each? How does each advance the RepRap project more generally?

I would focus on filament recycler. It is a rather simple project compared to the dual extruder and I expect it to be completed within a few weeks or so. It is also a waste of materials when the PLA filaments cannot be used (e.g. too short, failed prints). (The big carton box of unwanted PLA near the sink proves my point.)

Merits and Motivations behind choosing Dual Extruder and Filament Recycler

Dual Extruder Filament Recycler
Simple, Easy, Shorter implementation time

Reduce waste, environmentally friendly Multicolored Filaments

Cool! All printers we have at the moment have 1 extruder only

Print dual colored objects Mix and match different materials

To recycle filaments, all we need to do is to melt the existing fragments and push through a pore with the size of interest. I think it will be interesting to add different elements into the molten PLA, such as carbon fiber or nanoparticles. Adding different things can change the mechanical properties of the composites. For example, adding carbon fibers may increase the strength of PLA.

The success of using dual extruder can pave ways for milt-extruder designs (more than 3 extruders). People can integrate different materials in the same print (e.g. 1 extruder for PLA, 1 for PVA, 1 for paste material….) There is an unlimited combinations we can expect from a dual/ multi-extruder.

Blog #11 - April 23, 2013 - OHM RepRap Design Improvement

Crude Drawing

Given your experience with our OHM RepRap design, are there any parts in particular that you would redesign? How might we improve on what we have?

One part in particular that I think need to redesign is the OpenY_arm45 in the open Y carriage.

The bar at the moment is designed so that it is tilted in a 45 degree angle. However, from my experiences, the OpenY_arm45 is prone to break when screwing. This is due to the fact that the direction of the screw and the filaments are orthogonal to each other, and causes maximum force when screwing (please see my crude drawing on the right for visualization).

I propose redesigning the bar so that the screw and the filaments are not orthogonal to each other.

Blog #10 - April 19, 2013 - Review Peer Blog Evaluation

Read everyone's Blog #8.  If you were selected in others blogs as having a good one, note this.  If no one wrote about your blogs, what might you do to make them more accessible?  If your blog was 'highly rated', do your best to give guidance in how others might emulate you.  

After looking at the reviews from my peers, I found out that 8 out of 19 liked at least one of my blog posts. Most of them appreciated the pictures and the table I included in my post, the others think I made some decent comments in my posts.

Consider how you might organize your responses for maximum XP for the rest of the course.

I hope to improve my blog posts even further. The following are possible improvements I can make:

1) spend more time in my blog posts and come up with original and innovative ideas

2) use more graphics, such as pictures, links, tables, graphs....

3) make my blog posts more presentable by changing font sizes, color, spacings....

Blog #9 - March 29, 2013 - Photos to 3D Models

Read this: This is one example of a ‘using photos to create 3D models’ technology, as well as a laser-scanning method. Discuss laser-scanning based models as compared to photo based models. Can you find any examples of a photo based method which are open source?

Autodesk Recap can create intelligent 3D models from captured photos! I was mind-blown when I saw the video demo of using photos to create 3D models’ technology by Autodesk. I can definitely see the huge potential of this program as it has a lot of advantages over laser-scanning based models.

Comparison of Photos to 3D Models and Laser-Scanning

Photos to 3D Models Laser-Scanning
Cost Cheaper

The price of Recap Photo is not yet known, but I believe it is cheaper than a laser-scanning machine. It is definitely cheaper in the long run because of low-maintenance.


An average 3D laser scanner is around a few thousand bucks! High maintenance required.

Portability Wherever, Whenever!

Since only photos are required for the program to run, you can do it no matter where you are! (You can even enjoy a nice drink on a California beach while modeling a penguin from the South Pole! Isn’t that nice?)


Laser-scanner needed. Harder to carry around.

Modeling Size Large.

As seen in the video demo, the size of a room can be easily modeled.


The size of the machine usually scales with the size of the object. The larger the object, the bigger the 3D scanner.

Can you find any examples of a photo based method which are open source?

insight3d is an open source photo based method.

I believe the followings are free but not open source.

Autodesk 123D

my 3D scanner

hyper 3D

Blog #8 - March 22, 2013 - Peer Blog Evaluation

In this blog, we were asked to evaluate our peer's blogs and give comments.

Review the blogs #4 and #6 of your teammates first and then your classmates. I want you to find and link to the 3 most insightful posts for each blog (#4 and #6) (other than your own). Include why you consider their posts to be particularly thoughtful. IF you were giving away XP, who would deserve more XP for their blog posts, and why?

Blog 4

Wjf5042 - I think Wild Bill Fabrizi’s blog is very organized and extremely thoughtful. He mentioned how printing artificial limbs can help people with health insurance, which I failed to consider.

Mbilyk- Michael Bilyk’s blog is extremely detailed. I can see that he put in a lot of effort. I like his explanation in fast prototyping cycle and custom manufacturing. He also provided good comparison between pro-open and pro-closed. His innovative idea on putting a chip on the prosthetic is simple yet amazing. Using the chip to track the plans of an individual would definitely help as designs can be obtained easily and modifications can be made without any troubles.

Blacklaser- I really like the idea of combining both “conventional” methods with 3D printing. I think it is smart to only print pieces that we need (such as the customized pieces) and let the factories do the rest. Pieces that do not need any design changes can be bought from stores or factories. Depending on the function of the pieces, the materials used to make these pieces may be altered and not be limited to plastic only (e.g. carbon fiber for super strong and light weigh components OR Gor-Tex for light and waterproof and “breathable” pieces.)

Blog 6

Mbilyk- Michael Bilyk’s short summary of the article by Nick Bilton is concise and spot on! “3D printing is growing faster than people are expecting. - 3D printing is in everything - 3D printing is being support by large governments”. His analysis on the difference between the 3D printers used by University of Virginia and our printers is good. I like the point he made on the cost of running a 3D printing program. I agree for programs that are not bringing in money, the cost of running should be kept low.

Mark Keller- Decent summary on the article by Nick Bilton. I also like the links and pictures he inserted into his blog. This makes it easier for people to reference to the things we was talking about.

PwNzI- In the blog, it was mentioned that 3D printing is more useful in high school curriculum than in college curriculum. For example, many things in ME designs are made in metals. I think this is a very unique point.

If I were to give away XP, I would definitely choose Michael Bilyk’s blog. It is by far the best written and organized. It is easy to read and follow, and he raised many different interesting thoughts.

Blog #7 - March 9, 2013 - Kickstarter

Form 1 Stereolithography Printer

In this blog, we are given websites to several kickstarter projects, and are told to answer questions below.


Form 1




Comment on these projects.  Who is suing Formlabs and why?

3D Systems is suing Formlabs because they think Formlabs has infringed at least one of their patents. Form 1 uses stereolithography technology for high resolution prints. This technology was apparently under the patent filed by 3D System in Patent No. 5,597,520.

Why do you think the 3Doodler is making such headlines lately?  Look around kickstarter for similar projects which were not listed.

There are many other similar 3D printing machines in kickstarter. Most, if not all, of them stressed their printing machines have the higher resolution, cheaper price, lower noise level, and easier to assemble. However, none of them are as portable as the 3Doodler, which allows people to move the pen freely, and create uniques designs. 3Doodle managed to think out of the box. Instead of creating another 3D printer machine like everyone else, their concept of allowing people to “draw” their designs made them stand out.

Do you think kickstarter represents the future of crowd-sourced fundraising?

Kickstarter is definitely a good place to start for crowd-sourced fundraising. People appreciate fresh and unique designs, and they would be willing to back up projects they find worthy of. One amazing project in kickstarter, Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPone and Android, was able to get fundings way beyond their expectations, over 10,266%, which is equivalent to $10,266,845!!! Kickstarter definitely has a huge potential to raise large amount to support expensive projects. There are of course some projects that are not able to reach their funding goal. In my opinion, it is important for designers to keep their projects interesting. Instead of doing/ replicating what others have already done, designers/ developers need to come up with original ideas. Keeping ideas interesting is a key to be successful in crowd-sourced fundraising.

So, Kickstarter seems like a useful platform, with a variety of projects finding funding through it (though not all, as you may notice).  Some people have problems with it, however.  Read this:

What are the drawbacks of kickstarter?  Compare (and contrast  ^_^ ) kickstarter to a traditional storefront.  Are there alternatives to kickstarter?

Drawbacks: Kickstarter involves many organizations and people, therefore the funds raised may be discounted and split. For example, kickstarter/ amazon may take 10% of the funds you raised, and backers may request reward as well. The remaining funds designers get may not be self-sustainable, let alone profitable.

Alternatives to kickstarter include SellaBand, which is focused in the music industry, and Uinvest, which is an investment management platform.

Blog #6 - Feb 23, 2013 - NY Times, U Virginia

In this blog, we are asked to read 2 articles and answer some questions.

NY Times:

University of Virginia:

A) Summarize the first article and describe your thoughts about it.  What were the key points which you took from it?

In the article, writer Nick Bilton mentioned the importance of 3-D printing and the rising demand of using such technology in different industries. From entertainment, to food, to bio- and medical-applications, the rising demand for 3-D printing machines are ever growing. Later this year, London architectural collective, Softkill design will attempt to build a house in 1 day. It would be really interesting to see how the house will be built. The expansion of the technology rises exponentially as University of Virginia introduces the of 3-D printing to kids as young as age 3. With the decreasing cost to buy a 3-D printing machine, more people will have the chance to get in touch with this awesome technology.

B) Why was this years “state of the union” address mentioned in the first article?  Does this seem important to you? The “state of the union” was mentioned because it shows that this technology is increasingly important. 3-D printing has caught the eyes of many important people (even the president is talking about it!!!)

C) The University of Virginia is listed in the first article as hoping to distribute 3D printers throughout all educational levels.  The second article is an example of how they are changing their Undergraduate ME program.   What are the merits of this method?  Can you see any flaws?  

By introducing 3-D printers to the Undergraduate ME program, students would be able to understand the abstract 2-D designs in their textbooks through real 3-D objects created by the printers.

Possible flaws include expensive overhead cost, and students would need to spend extra time to create the computer file using CAD 3D objects and print the objects out.

D) Compare our printers to the printers used at the University of Virginia.  If we tried to mimic their program using our printers instead of theirs, how do you think it would fare?

The printers used at the University of Virginia (Dimension U Print 3D Printer) cost around $15000 each. The price is probably at least 50 times more expensive than our build-your-own printers. Dimension U Print 3D Printer produces better quality prints with greater precision and accuracy. This is advantageous because even the slightest misalignment in a dynamic system may cripple the system. In my opinion, the biggest selling point of the Dimension U Print 3D Printer is that the printers can print out fully assembled dynamic system.

Although the printers used by University of Virginia clearly have the upper hand, I think our printers would be able to achieve similar, if not same, quality prints. However, dedication and time are needed to continuously fine tune our printers and assemble the components of the systems.

Bonus Blog - Feb 19, 2013 - NY Times article

I came across an article “On the Fast Track to Routine 3-D Printing” in The New York Times, dated Monday, February 18, 2013.

In the article, writer Nick Bilton mentioned the importance of 3-D printing and the rising demand of using such technology in different industries. From entertainment, to food, to bio- and medical-applications, the rising demand for 3-D printing machines are ever growing.

Even President Obama mentioned this technology during his State of the Union address, and stressed the importance of knowing this technology.

It is important to make 3-D printing technologies even more affordable, so that more people can own this technology and improve upon it.

Blog #5 - Feb 15, 2013 - 3D Printing Copyright

In this blog, I was given an article about 3D Printing Copyright. I was then told to re-examine the objects I found in my first blog and assess each one for copyrightable or patentable elements. In the second part of the blog, I compared objects found by my classmates and evaluated them for any copyrightable or patentable elements.

Re-examine the objects you found on thingiverse in your first blog.  Assess each one for copyrightable or patentable elements.  

Remote adaptor for seniors

The adaptor is created in 3D software instead of using a 3D scanner, so the stl. files would be copyrightable. However, the object itself is useful, so the remote adaptor would not be considered as copyrightable.

Reims Cathedral Kitset

The cathedral was drawn in solid works, so the file would be copyrightable. Whether the object itself is copyrightable is debatable. Certain aspects of the church is useful, but some are categorized as creative. The artistic element of the church may be severable and copyrightable.

Ant Coffin

The stl. file for the ant coffin is copyrightable. The object itself may/ may not be copyrightable. Rarely would a person create a coffin for an ant, however, if the size of the coffin is scaled up, it might be used as a coffin for people/ pets.

Despicable Me, Minion

The file and the object are both copyrightable since Minion is a creative object. They might even infringed the copyright of Universal since Universal created the character first.


Garden Toad
Eiffel Tower

Both the object and the stl. file are copyrightable because they are creative instead of useful.

Are any of them particularly obvious cases of copyrighted or patented material which have been found by your classmates?

The garden toad Blacklaser found is considered as copyrightable. The toad was scanned from an original sculpture and created a file using 123D Catch. The person who scanned it does not own a copyright in the scan file, nor does he have the permission the print the creative object.

The Mario Bros. figure found by Djl5217 is obviously copyrightable. Mario was created by Shigeru Miyamoto. Permission from Miyamoto is required to own the creative file or print the object. Same thing goes to the Bugs Bunny model found by YaqiYang . The character was created by Warner Bros., and permission is needed to keep the file and the print.

The Eiffel Tower found by Xiaomo Zhang is copyrightable because it is a creative architectural design. Similar case would be the BIG’s astana national library found by Yoc5166.

Blog #4 - Feb 8, 2013 - Replacement Hand

In this week’s blog, we were given a link about building replacement hand using 3D printer.


My thoughts

3D printing has yet again proved to be an inspiring technology, as Ivan Owen from Washington and Richard Van As from South Africa built a right hand for Liam, who had his digits amputated before birth.

I am impressed and moved by Owen and Van As’s determination to keep their project an open-source. Making their projects an open-source will be able to benefit many, especially veterans who have lost their hand/ fingers.

I hope the project may one day expand to building other parts of the body, such as, arms and legs.

Comparison of Open-sourced (3D printed) and Closed-sourced (i-limb ultra) Artificial Hand

Open-Sourced Closed-Sourced
Cost CHEAP! Expensive (~$18,000)
Mechanical Structure less strong (PLA) more strong (usually carbon fiber/ metal alloys)
Reliability shorter lifetime longer lifetime
Movements limited rotatable thumb/ wrist
fixed create custom gestures
nil auto grasp feature to prevent objects slipping

This link, Robohand Open Source, allows you to visit the open source project page Owen and Van As is working on.

In the mean time, we may be able to provide technology/ equipments they may need, or improve their current artificial hand design. We can also contribute to their project by bringing awareness to this project. People need to know how awesome these guys are. Through media and publicity, Owen and Van As will eventually have the funding to push their projects one step further.

Further information about their Robohand can be found in their blog Coming up Shorthanded.

Blog #3 - Feb 1, 2013- 3D Printing in other Industries

In this blog, I will focus on how 3D printing is affecting other areas of human endeavors. This includes Civil Engineering, Biotech, Food Science, and Fashion.

Civil Engineering

Behrokh Khoshnevis Contour Crafting

Housing has remained a big issue in all countries. This is not a problem only occur in less developed countries, but also happens developed countries as well. It is important to treat housing problems immediately because it has shown that crime rate, illiteracy rate, and disease rate increase with increasing housing problem. Professor of University of Southern California, Behrokh Khoshnevis, proposed the idea of “Contour Crafting”. “Contour Crafting” utilizes the techniques from 3D printers, and scales it up to build inexpensive houses in a shorter period of time. “Contour Crafting” has several impacts; Economic impact, employment impact, social impact, environmental impact, and architectural impact.

Economic Impact

From the video, we see that the concrete wall Professor Khoshnevis built is hollow, yet has the strength 3 times higher than conventional concrete wall. This shows “contour crafting” reduces the amount of material used, thus making house cheaper to build.

Employment Impact

The construction of houses by “contour crafting” is basically automated, so less workers will be needed. This will greatly affect the employment rates.

Social Impact

Building cheap houses in a faster time can relieve the problem of housing shortages. This technology will be greatly appreciated in underdeveloped countries and countries hit by natural disaster. People will be able to have a safe and stable home in a short time, without having to live in temporary tents with poor living conditions. From the statistics provided in the video, a 25 sqft house takes only around 20 hours.

Environmental Impact

Using less material implies that CO2 emission will be lowered. According to the government census done in 2011, there are 132,312,404 houses in US alone. If each houses’ carbon footprint is reduced, the environment would definitely change for the better. Architectural Impact Complicated designs that may cost millions and years to build can be constructed without difficulty in 3D printing. This technology expands our limits to where we can build structures; In space, under water, dangerous terrains, and many more.

Once “contour crafting” matures, I think it would be very beneficial to the human race.


How 3D Printers Are Reshaping Medicine

Penn Researchers Improve Living Tissues With 3D Printed Vascular Networks Made From Sugar

3D printers have been used to make prosthetic limbs, hearing aids, and dental fixtures. It still has a long way before a printed organ can be used in organ replacement, but 3D printers has begun to explore the possibility of printing human tissue. Currently, pharmaceutical companies are trying to print 3D cells culture for drug testing and research. If successful, it will be a huge improvement from the current 2D cell cultures because 2D cultures may produce inaccurate results at times. Printing 3D cells can be achieved by constructing a 3D vascular network. The scaffold needs to be large but does not suffocate the cells.

Researchers from University of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Institution of Technology work together to build a vascular network made from sugar using 3D printer. The sugar they use is a combination of sucrose and glucose along with dextran for structural reinforcement. They then inject solution with cell culture to the sugar scaffold and let the solution solidifies to a gel. Once the sugar is removed, fluid flows through the vascular architecture and cells receive nutrients and oxygen. This is a major advancement since usually cells are not able to survive in large structure for a long time. Once this technique matures, the possibility of building an artificial organ will be higher than ever.

Food Science

3D Printed Burger

3D Chocolate Printer

Modern Meadow created a $300,000 hamburger. The price is astonishingly high for a good reason- it is created totally out of a 3D printer.

The meat and fat ratio can be adjusted to your personal preferences to create the perfect beef with perfect marbling.

If you want a cheaper alternative, a 3D printer for chocolate is available for $3,500.

There is a possibility that people would use this technique to create genetically modified food. For example, meat with antibiotics that can prevent meat from turning bad, or fruits with extra dose of vitamins and sugars. Unless people can lower the cost of the 3D printers, I do not think people would be willing to spend the money on ultra expensive food.


3D Printed Dress Picture

I am impressed how designer Iris Van Herpen integrates fashion and 3D printing into her designs. I am interested to what degree 3D printed clothes are to normal clothes. For example, how flexible is the dress, what other polymers can be used, how should the dress be cleaned, and so on. I wish to see more of her designs.

Blog #2 - Jan 25, 2013 - Mother of all Demos, Open Source and Knowledge Sharing

In this blog, I had to watch 2 videos and answer question related to them. The first video is about the "Mother of all Demos", where Douglas Engelbart debuted the first computer mouse and cursor and new functions of the computer. The second video is a talk given by Professor Richard Doyle on the topic of open source and knowledge sharing. "Professor Richard Doyle: Open source future"

Mother of all Demos

Do you recognize the rough features we use on every computer today in its earliest form?   

Yes, I recognize the rough features we use today. There was a keyboard, mouse, and monitor screen, which is the basic structure of all computers nowadays. There was a small square-shaped keyboard on the left of the presenter which I am not sure what it is, but I am guessing that is the function keys, such as, control, shift, tab, and so on.

Are you impressed by what he’s demonstrating?  

I’m really impressed by what he’s demonstrating. This allows people to interact with computers like never before. The computer mouse give people the freedom to navigate through the screen without any effort. It has made computers more user friendly, and I would think this is why computers became ever so popular.

Do you think that you would have recognized the importance of this work if you were in the audience at the time?  

I would have recognized the importance of the work. The work demonstrated is great to make work less mundane and tedious. The copy and paste, collapsing and expanding of texts, and numbering function is really great. I would really appreciate the new functions because it could save me valuable time.

Professor Richard Doyle: Open source future

What does he say regarding the initial perception of the mother of all demos?


Professor Richard Doyle said that it is one thing to be able to replicate a prototype, but it is another thing to have the culture to make the object run.

Doyle makes a number of arguments regarding the importance of our open source efforts in comparison to models requiring intellectual property.Why do we and why should we share the information we generate?   (Or shouldn’t we?  Are we missing out by not trying to patent our efforts?) How might we better share our knowledge?

Doyle thinks that we should share the information because it allows us to hack through our own individual fantasy, and overcome obstacles people have face for hundreds of years. This is what he called returning to the root of science. I think people should share information as well. However, to make sure that companies, like pharmaceutical companies, would be able to have enough profit to cover their research and development, I have to agree that patents should be used to protect intellectual properties, or else companies would have had millions of dollars down the drain. People will still have the access to the product companies produced, but they just cannot replicate them. The public would still be able to share information, and the companies would not loose money.

Blog #1 - Jan 18, 2013 - Thingiverse, Ideo, Tinkering

In this blog, I found some objects from Thingiverse that I think are Useful, Artistic/ Beautiful, Pointless/ Useless, Funny/ Weird, Scary/ Strange.


Have you ever got annoyed by people when they keep on asking you how to use the remote, phone, or anything thing else with more than 3 buttons/ keys. This TV Remote Adaptors for Seniors design is useful because it converts the more complicated (with at least 50 buttons/ keys) remote control to a simplified version. The cover is always detachable to access the advanced settings of the remote control.

Artistic/ Beautiful

This replica of Notre-Dame Church of Pairs no doubt impressed me in many ways. The details, size, execution, and accuracy of this model is by far one of the finest I have seen in the Thingiverse website. This 3D printed, multicomponent Notre-Dame Church in Paris, demonstrates the ability of 3D printing machine (in this case UP! 3D printer) to handle complex structure.

Pointless/ Useless

This Ant Coffin is designed to trap an ant. Ants can carry up to 50 times their body weight, and I doubt this ant coffin is heavy enough to trap an ant. It a funny, interesting idea, but practically useless.

Funny/ Weird

Despicable Me is one of my favorite animated movies. And like many, my favorite character is the “Minions”. Though this replica is not perfect and has some distortion here and there, it still make me smile whenever I see it. =]

Scary/ Strange

This Monster model may be an art piece to some, but the sharp teeth and unrecognizable features make me uncomfortable at times.

I also watched a video about the founder of Ideo, read an article about tinkering, and answer some questions below.

Video: How to design breakthrough inventions

Article: "The Tinkerers: How corporations kill creativity

Do you feel that you are a tinkerer?  Do you know anyone else who is? 

I do not think I am a great tinkerer. Most of the time when things break, I would just replace them with new ones, especially for electronics. I do know a friend that would always make good use of her pink tool box whenever she see something broken.

What do you think about the argument regarding the influence of corporate culture on tinkering?

After reading the article, “The Tinkerers”: How corporations kill creativity, I have to agree that corporate culture kills tinkering. It is only logical that corporations would not want people to tinker because it would mean less profit, and even a child can tell you that less profit is bad. The art of tinkering dies fast especially when corporations produce newer items with shorter lifespan. I still remember the days when most people own a Nokia phone. Nokia phones are famous for having a long lifespan. Even if you drop it from Mount Everest, or burn it to ashes, Nokia’s phone will still work (alright, I might have exaggerated a bit, but you get my point). However, companies nowadays, especially in the developed countries, understand that preferences of consumers changes rapidly, so they make good use of this psychological effect and launch products that may only last 3 years instead of the usual 5. Having short lifespan means consumers would need to constantly repair the product (phones for example). The inconveniences would eventually lead consumers to get a new phone instead of trying the repair the phone which would probably break again in the near future.

At the end of the article is the line, "...preserving the habitat of the tinkerer is one of the few time-proven ways we as a nation can get back on track."  What do you think about this idea?

I think, to a certain extend, preserving the habit of the tinkerers can get the nation back in track. Tinkering does promote individualism and creativity, which is very important, but it can also create an increase in the number of hackers. There is a fine line between tinkering and hacking, and not all people fully understand it (to be honest, I do not really know the difference either).

What are the primary design principles you took away from the interview?  

The primary design principle I took away from the interview is being EMPATHETIC, understanding what people really want. I think that is why he brought people with different backgrounds together. Working with people with different cultures and field of expertise allows ideas to building upon one another, and eventually come up with a product that no one mind can think of.

What did you think when you saw his final project with his daughter? 

I thought it is cool that he is building the printer bot with his daughter. I think building a printer is a good project that integrates different fields of engineering. The chip of the machine involves electrical engineering, the structure of the printer requires mechanical skills, importing graphical designs to the printer needs computer science knowledge...... Again, this video reminded me how glad I am taking this 3D printing course right now. Not only am I learning how to build and use a 3D printer, it is also teaching me how to be a tinker. Instead of buying a brand new 3D printer that will cost a fortune, we are improving and fine tuning the old ones. Although there are many frustrations when our group are trying to fix the machine, I believe that we will eventually solve the problem and gain invaluable experience.

Can you think of how some of his principles might apply to our work?

From the video, I have learnt the importance of working as a group, and collaborating with people of different backgrounds and culture. All of my current group members have different major and we are very diverse. It is a good start for me to apply David Kelley’s principle to our work.